All about urolithiasis
Urolithiasis is one of the most common urological diseases, which often leads to severe current and is prone to relapse. Urolithiasis is manifested in the formation of stones at any level of the urinary tract - ureter, urethra, bladder, etc. This disease occurs in all age categories, but most often affects people in the most active period of their life. In recent years, there has been a tendency towards an increase in this disease due to the direct influence of some unfavorable environmental factors
The main cause of development of urolithiasis is considered to be a hereditary predisposition to metabolic disorders, which is why insoluble salts are formed, which are then formed into stones. However, even with a hereditary predisposition, the ICD will never develop bases for the absence of various predisposing factors, in particular such as:
- With a sedentary lifestyle and sedentary work, phosphorus-calcium metabolism is disrupted.
( цистит , пиелонефрит , аденома предстательной железы, нефроптоз, простатит , гидронефроз и др.). - All kinds of diseases of the urogenital system and kidneys ( cystitis , pyelonephritis , prostate adenoma, nephroptosis, prostatitis , hydronephrosis , etc.).
- The constant shortage of ultraviolet rays and vitamins also promotes stone formation.
- Diseases and injuries of bones (osteoporosis, osteomyelitis, etc.).
, хронический гастрит , язвенная болезнь и пр.). - Presence of chronic diseases of intestines and stomach ( colitis , chronic gastritis , peptic ulcer , etc.).
- A significant role is played by the climatic factor - those living in hot climates sweat much more often, as a result of which the concentration of some salts considerably increases in the body and stone formation can begin.
- Inherited genetic characteristics
The most characteristic symptom of urolithiasis is pronounced pain in the lumbar region. Pain can be both blunt and acute, and be periodic or permanent. The nature of pain directly depends on the individual structure of the urinary tract, the size and location of the stone, the severity and degree of obstruction.
Often pains increase or arise in consequence of various physical loads, as a result of which the stones move from their place and begin to move along the urinary ways, causing painful sensations. Also, urolithiasis is often accompanied by a so-called renal colic - paroxysmal pain, which is caused by the obstructed pathway of outflow of urine with a stone. There are cases when the ICD can be accompanied by tension and swelling of the abdominal muscles, nausea, vomiting and changes in the composition of urine
Treatment of urolithiasis is divided into conservative, instrumental and operative.
Conservative treatment is prescribed for patients with small stones and no complications of the disease. This type of treatment includes adherence to a special diet in conjunction with taking certain medications. But unfortunately because of quite often arising complications it is necessary to resort to an operative intervention as in some neglected cases it is necessary to go on complete removal of a kidney together with a stone
Special preventive therapy corrects the disturbed metabolism and is prescribed strictly according to individual indications, based on the data of the examination of each particular patient. Without this therapy, in the course of five years, about fifty percent of patients who have got rid of stones with one of the existing methods of treatment, urinary stones begin to form again.
Also an important condition for the prevention of stone formation is a change in lifestyle:
- Learn to avoid emotional stress.
- It is desirable to give up alcohol completely.
- Go in for sports, in particular fitness (of course, without excessive physical exertion).
- People suffering from overweight should definitely reduce the calorie content of food.
In conclusion, I would like to add that in no case should you start this disease and if you have the slightest unpleasant sensations in the lumbar region, you should immediately contact a urologist.
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