Tendonitis is the inflammation of tendon tissues, usually seen in the area of attachment of the tendon to the bone. Quite often this disease is combined with an inflammatory lesion of the tendon sheath or tendon bag and can manifest itself in the form of ordinary mild pain, which often appears from overwork. However, unlike tendinitis, simple muscle pain is a fairly temporary phenomenon, whereas painful manifestations with this the disease is very resistant and can be observed for a long time. Tendinitis affects people regardless of their professional activity, sex and age, but people who are older than forty years old, as well as those engaged in manual labor or sports, are most vulnerable to age-related changes in tendon tissues, loading the same zone
The most common cause of tendonitis is microtraumatism and increased physical activity. In physical work, the places where the muscles attach to the bone skeleton experience a rather heavy load. In cases where such a load is excessive and regular, the cartilage and tendon tissues at the attachment sites are often subjected to degenerative changes that manifest themselves in the form of small tissue necrosis (necrosis), the deposition of calcium salts, the areas of fat degeneration of cartilage tissue and tendons. Calcium salts are most often deposited in places where, for some reason, a microfracture of the tendon has occurred. Due to the fact that calcium salts are sufficiently solid, they can easily injure surrounding tissues.
Due to prolonged physical exertion, the cartilaginous tissue located between the tendon fibers degenerates, ossifies, and then there are such bone growths as osteophytes, bone spurs and thorns. These processes are also a catalyst for the development of tendonitis. In addition, tendonitis can develop as a consequence of the presence in humans of such rheumatic diseases as reactive arthritis , rheumatoid arthritis and gout
The most common causes of tendonitis:
- Prolonged significant physical load on a certain joint
- Injuries and bacterial infections ( gonorrhea , etc.)
- Rheumatic diseases ( arthritis , gout, etc.)
- Various allergic reactions to certain medications
- The asymmetric structure of the body (in case the lower limbs of different lengths, the tendonitis of the knee joint may develop)
- Non-observance of correct posture
- Incorrect development of tendons or their weakening
Developed tendonitis can be observed almost anywhere in the human body, where there is a tendon. Quite often, tendonitis occurs at the base of the shoulder, the thumb of the hand, the femoral, knee and elbow joints, the calcaneal tendon. In adolescents and children, the most common tendonitis of the knee is directly related to the inflammatory lesion of the apophysis of the tibia
Tendonitis - symptoms
The most pronounced symptoms of tendonitis are the limitation of mobility and pain, which can appear suddenly, or increase as the inflammatory process develops. Painful sensations in places of inflammation and the areas adjacent to them are quite stubborn and do not last for a long time. Sensation of the affected tendon shows increased sensitivity
: болевые ощущения; The main symptoms of tendonitis : pain; Hyperemia is observed over the affected tendon; there is an audible through a phonendoscope or even at a distance the crepitation when the tendon moves. The course of the disease is significantly complicated in the case of the deposition of the tendons and joint bag of calcium salts that weaken.
Tendonitis of the shoulder joint is manifested by decreased mobility of the shoulder and a decrease in the amplitude of movements. In the unloaded state, painful sensations in the shoulder are completely absent. Growing by the night time, painful sensations are an alarming symptom in tendonitis, not so much because of its severity, but because of the forced position of the body during sleep.
Tendonitis of the knee joint is manifested by difficulties in descending or ascending stairs, running and walking. In the case of inflammatory tendon lesions in the forearm, patients have problems with performing various actions and holding objects in their hands
Tendonitis - treatment
The first task of treatment of tendonitis is to ensure complete rest of the affected area. For these purposes, with crippling of the lower extremities, crutches or a cane are excellent; with tendonitis of the shoulder joint - a langet, a tire or dressing; with tendonitis of the elbow joint - a rigid bandage. In parallel with this, the administration of painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs is prescribed, topically, it is possible to use similar ointments.
Positive dynamics in the treatment of tendonitis is observed after injections directly into the lesion of corticosteroids, which quickly enough eliminate pain and contribute to the attenuation of the inflammatory process. Addition to the main course of treatment is physiotherapy.
With a strong inflammatory process, or in case of ineffectiveness of standard treatment, antibiotics are indicated, and in particularly severe cases - surgical intervention.
Treatment of tendonitis will be effective only if the patient complies with all recommendations for resting the affected limb without exception. If the previous regime and the rhythm of work continue, further development of the disease can be guaranteed with confidence.
Prophylaxis of tendonitis is much easier than its subsequent treatment. Regardless of the upcoming physical exertion, a small workout should be done beforehand. The rate of the load itself needs to be increased gradually, without working at the limit of its forces. In case of the appearance of the slightest signs of pain, the occupation should be changed, or at least a short rest. In the event that during the performance of an action painful sensations continue to appear, in the future it is better not to return to them at all. Prevention of tendonitis of the shoulder joint is to avoid the work that must be done with your hands up. In case of impossibility due to professional characteristics, the upper limbs should periodically give a full rest.