Dryness of the skin

сухость кожи фото Dry skin, first of all, is expressed in violation of water, as well as lipid metabolism, changes in the functioning of the sebaceous and sweat glands. In order to understand the causes of dry skin, we will consider in more detail what is really the skin represent and what their role is for a person.

Skin covers are the outer layer protecting the human body from external influences, participating in thermoregulation, respiration and metabolic processes. The area of ​​the skin of an adult person is two square meters, and the weight is about a sixth of the total body weight. Skin covers act as a barrier between the human body and the environment, perform multiple important functions, participate in the regulation of body temperature, protect the internal organs from various kinds of mechanical influences (pressure, tremors, friction).

The presence of an antiseptic environment on the skin protects the body from the effects of pathogens. As long as the skin remains healthy, it maintains the necessary level of moisture and protects the person from the effects of sunlight. Negative environmental impact, chemicals, cosmetics, ultraviolet irradiation, peridosis of medicines, as well as nervous overloads greatly violate the balance. As a result, there is peeling, redness, irritation, previously the formation of wrinkles and dry skin.

Skin covers consist of three layers. The first epidermis, the second dermis and the third subcutaneous layer of fat. The epidermis is the outer layer, reaching a thickness of 0.03-1 mm. The finest epidermis has eyelids, and in those places where the strongest effect is manifested - the epidermis thickens up to 30 times. Peeling of the epidermis of the upper layer is a normal physiological process, since the skin surface separates up to two billion horny skin scales every day. And the epidermis cells are renewed every four weeks. Restoration of the skin is carried out by dividing the cells of the basal and deepest layer of the epidermis. In the basal layer, creatine is involved in the synthesis of young cells. It is carried out at night. People do not notice the renewal of the skin. The process of exfoliation is noticeable when the separation of the keratinized cells goes in large groups. The basal layer of the epidermis also plays an important role in determining our tan. It contains melanophores (pigment cells) involved in the formation of melanin pigment in the sun. Pigment cells on the skin surface are distributed unevenly. For example, the area of ​​the face has twice as much melanophora on each square centimeter as on the inside of the hand. Therefore, a person is able to tan much faster and stronger. If the skin is not able to produce melanin after being in the sun, then this phenomenon is called albinism , and people are referred to albinos .

Under the upper layer of the epidermis is the dermis, which is much thicker (up to 2.4 mm). The dermis itself is a dense, connective, fibrous, tissue and basic substance containing elastic and collagen fibers. These fibers are responsible for the condition of the skin and for whether the skin is dry, flabby or stretched and resilient. Collagen fibers absorb and accumulate moisture under certain conditions. When filling with moisture until failure, the skin covers visually look elastic and smooth. The second important task of the dermis is the provision of the epidermis with nutrients: microelements, vitamins, oxygen, proteins, minerals and amino acids. The dermis is capable of maintaining a constant body temperature within 37 degrees. Temperature control is automatic. Bloody, tiny capillaries become narrower at the sensation of cold, and expand in the heat. When the narrowing of the vessels is noticeable on the surface of the skin, it is called "goose". If the body overheats or works physically, the sweat glands actively secrete sweat. Speaking on the surface of the skin, sweat evaporates. Thus, the skin is cooled and the whole body is protected from overheating.

The last appears subcutaneous fatty tissue, which is a deep cutaneous layer. It is capable of reaching a thickness from a millimeter to several centimeters. The composition of the fiber includes loose connective tissue, deposited primarily on the abdomen, buttocks, thighs. Subcutaneous fatty tissue acts as protection against impacts, energy "depot", and also a thermo-layer. The thickness of the fat layer is directly dependent on nutrition, age, sports load, hormonal system work, heredity. The fiber of the cell has nerve endings in it, as well as the roots of the hair.

So, we figured out that the skin is one of the big human organs of the body, fulfilling numerous, as well as various functions. The appearance of the outer cover immediately indicates the state of the whole organism.

But what signals the dryness of the skin and what is dangerous, we will now try to understand. Dry skin or dry skin (xeroderma) is one of the signs of a lack of moisture in the upper layer - the epidermis. A small amount of water accumulates in the epidermis (up to 20%). At the first signs of a lack of moisture, the following occurs: the lower layers of the skin strongly evaporate water, and there is a slowdown in the metabolic processes leading to their fading.

Dry skin is a very common phenomenon, characteristic of middle-aged people, as well as elderly people.

Dry skin causes

In medicine, there are two types of dry skin. The first type is acquired dry skin. The second type is caused by the constitutionality. Acquired dry becomes such under the influence of external factors. These factors are ultraviolet rays, frost, high temperature, wind, low humidity. Often the excessive dryness of the skin is the result of therapeutic measures or exfoliation (peeling) procedures, or the method of rejuvenation (dermabrasion). Dry skin is also likely when using azelaic acid, retinoids and other drugs.

Constitutionally, dry skin develops physiologically or by genetic features. Often it appears in children from two to six years. This is due to the physiological decline in the synthesis of sebum by the sebaceous glands. Constitutionally conditioned dryness can manifest itself in a number of skin pathologies such as ichthyosis.

Dry skin of the hands, back, legs, face is often found in women with a thin and snow-white skin.

Modern medicine distinguishes such a thing as senile xerosis, by which is meant a clinical symptom with excessive dry skin on aging. Often, the skin turns to dry in the period before menopause, as well as during the time of menopause.

There is another classification of dry skin: good tone and reduced tone.

A good tone of dry skin is characterized by an elastic, smooth and matte surface. This occurs when the skin is not wrinkled, but the sensitivity to respond to external stimuli is high. Therefore, the skin needs regular, cosmetic care, since the absence of such will lead to loss of tonus. Often such a feature is peculiar to people of a young age.

Reduced tone of dry skin is characterized by thinness. Very much it becomes noticeable around the mouth, and also the eye, since in these places there are the first wrinkles and folds. Owners of reduced skin tone need to use modern techniques for her care to improve the condition.

Dryness of the skin of the legs and its causes are as follows: mechanical effects due to wearing a narrow, uncomfortable shoe, which leads to squeezing and thickening of the stratum corneum, followed by dryness.

Dry skin symptoms

How to determine the dryness of the skin yourself? When pressing on the skin with your fingers, there are traces of dry skin.

The signs of dry skin include peeling, flaking, itching, red spots, discomfort, rudeness and inelasticity, lack of pores, tightness after water procedures, roughness, deep cracks, and occasional bleeding of cracks.

Water is extremely necessary for skin. If there is not enough moisture, the skin can not function normally. The level of moistening affects the appearance of the epidermis. Moisture is capable of giving elasticity and elasticity. Moisture also supplies the skin with all the important nutrients.

The lack of proper moisturizing thinning and leads to dry skin. In addition, it is rapidly covered with wrinkles, becoming supersensitive to external influences. Determine the degree of moistening of the skin can be two mechanisms of regulation. The first is the general condition of the stratum corneum; the second is the total amount of sebum. Horny cells, like sebum, form a lipid layer that protects the skin layer from moisture loss. Function of the lipid layer and in the prevention of the penetration of pathogenic microbes, allergens and toxins. Dry skin threatens inflammatory processes, and also leads to premature aging.

There are a number of diseases accompanied by dry skin: hypothyroidism , psoriasis , atopic dermatitis , diabetes mellitus , eczema , stress, renal insufficiency, allergic rhinitis , chronic intoxication, ichthyosis , hair keratosis , dystrophy, seborrhea (dandruff), hypovitaminosis A, Sjogren's disease .

There are many other possible causes of skin dryness: bathing in hot water, physiological aging, frequent washing, seasonal changes, taking medicines, changing the climate, dehydration, inflammation, allergic reactions, wounds, irritations, scratches, cuts, home air dryness , infatuation with alkaline soap, as well as cosmetic products, disorders in the work of the gastrointestinal tract.

Dry skin treatment

Often, dry skin appears a couple of days after the holiday. The reason for this is staying for a long time in the sun and climate change. To restore the skin, you need to moisten the air in the house. For this purpose, live flowers or vessels with water help well. Set the air conditioner at 85% humidity.

Effective for skin integument moisturizing procedures under polyethylene. These procedures help to increase sweating, as well as absorption of skin by water. Enough 3 procedures and dry skin will recede.

The dryness of the skin of the hands, face, head and all skin is treated with baths with starch, soda, salt, special ointments, which are based on urea or salicylic acid. After frequent visits to the pools, dry knees, elbows, forearms suffer, so it is necessary after their visits to rinse the body with cool water.

During the period of hormonal reorganization, the skin is rapidly overdried. This applies to women after 45 years. Especially problematic is the skin of the feet, as well as the palms. In such cases, the treatment is complex.

During the period of weight loss, the skin is prone to the greatest dryness of the skin, since micro organisms and macro-elements leave the body with water, and their replenishment does not occur (the person deliberately restricts himself in food and water), and this can not be done. Dehydration of the skin leads to increased peeling.

How to treat this dry skin? It is important to drink up to two liters of water every day. Well fill the moisture of low-fat sour-milk drinks, juices, but tea and coffee even dehydrate the body.

This group of risk includes people after 65 years of age, fans of hot tubs living in a cold climate or with low humidity.

To the dryness of the skin may complicate complications: phlegmon, eczema, atopic dermatitis , folliculitis. If you find yourself incomprehensible signs (redness of individual areas, itching, sleep disturbances, ulcers, peeling) should consult a dermatologist.

Dry skin during treatment includes a special diet: rich in vitamins and minerals. Mostly it is vitamins of group B. To do this, include eggs, fish, brown rice, green vegetables, dairy products, liver, nuts, black bread and fruits in the diet. Vegetables and fruits activate the production of collagen, supply the body with vitamin C, A, the liver will act as a source of protein, dairy products will provide the body with amino acids.

Dryness of the skin in a child

Most young mothers are concerned about the dryness of the skin of babies. This phenomenon is attributed to the norm, because after the birth, the sweat glands do not function well and with time everything spontaneously develops.

If the child's dry skin persists for a long time, then a number of reasons may arise: frequent bathing, early artificial feeding, hard water, maternal eating disorders, intestinal pathology, early supplementation, contact with household chemicals.

Dryness of the skin in a child occurs rapidly due to rapid response to external causes. A harmless powder based on talc is able to dry the baby's skin.

Dry skin in a child can cause pain, redness, itching, flaking, cracking of the skin.

Young mothers are recommended to use hypoallergenic moisturizing lotions and creams specially designed for babies to treat dry skin. If they are ineffective, seek help from a pediatrician.

Dry skin during pregnancy

This is the main problem for all future mothers. In this period there is an acute shortage of liquid by the body. This dehydration often affects the feet, upper limbs, skin covering the face.

How to remove dry skin? With the help of special tools that do not harm the fetus. Do not use hydrocortisone or cortisone, as they will further lead to dehydration. Use simple tips: wash the foam for moisturizing, apply a moisturizing mask and vegetable oils while bathing, drink non-carbonated, mineral water, use an air humidifier and scrubs with small particles, do not get carried away by the baths.

Dryness of scalp

This phenomenon is quite common, especially in the winter. With an imbalance of the sebaceous glands, flakes with a yellowish tinge fall off the scalp.

Dryness of the scalp is treated with a diet. Include fatty acids in your daily diet. Use avocados, fatty fish, refuse perfumed air conditioners, as well as shampoos. Each washing of the head is completed by rinsing with apple cider vinegar. Purchase an air humidifier. Use the mask for the head: honey in combination with olive oil.

Dry skin of the head in the presence of diseases such as psoriasis, alopecia , seborrheic dermatitis needs complex treatment by specialists.

Dryness of the hands skin

This state is caused by a number of factors. This includes the care of hands, the general condition of the body, living conditions, nutrition. It is the hands that give out the age of the person. To keep your hands attractive, use the tips: after washing, dry your hands thoroughly, complete the washing procedure in cool water, never leave on the street with wet hands, and in frost without gloves, use softening hand creams, apply sunscreen on your hands, homework in the summer do gloves, use a hand scrub. In the evening, with your hands smeared with cream, put on them polyethylene gloves.

Use masks and compresses from mashed potatoes; yolks with honey and vegetable oil; sour cream, yolk and lemon juice. After masks, apply the cream on your hands for moisturizing. All these recommendations will help keep your hands well-groomed and beautiful.

Dry skin of face

If you can not cope with the dryness of your face, resort to the help of cosmetologists, since proper care will preserve youth and prevent the appearance of early wrinkles. The face is better to wash with melt water or special lotions, milk can be diluted with water and infusions of herbs. Apply facial masks after cleaning the skin. Good masks of oat flakes, dairy products, as well as warm porridges. Positive results are provided by gymnastic procedures and of course rational nutrition. Very badly reflected on the face is the habit of smoking and the abundance of cosmetic decorative products. At the same time, the skin around the eyes loses its elasticity, it becomes dry. To prevent such problems, moisten the skin with special moisturizing creams around the eyes, avoid ultraviolet, enrich the diet with vegetables and fruits, drink plenty of liquid. At home, apply to the problem areas the juice of the aloe plant.

Dryness of the skin of the lips

This condition occurs after licking the lips, which leads to the evaporation of moisture and the appearance of dryness not only on the lips, but also around the mouth.

Dry skin of the lips is often found in cold, as well as windy weather or under direct exposure to sunlight. Sometimes the cause is a lack of moisture, as well as nutrient components.

The best treatment for the dryness of the skin of the lips is not to tolerate such a condition. Each exit from the house must be accompanied by lip lubrication with hygienic lipstick or balm. In summer it is necessary to use sunscreen balsams, for example with oils. Good to use masks for softening: cottage cheese, apple, creamy, carrot.