Screening for Pregnancy
If we turn to the encyclopedia for treatment, we will read there that screening is a method for identifying individuals with pathology, as well as the factors that led to its development, aimed at using diagnostic studies, including testing.
Screening is carried out for one purpose - early diagnosis of the disease, as well as clarifying the predisposition to any disease, which in turn requires timely treatment and preventive care. The results of screening come to the study of the disease, as well as possible groups of diseases.
One of the main conditions for the screening of pregnant women is the availability of well-trained staff, as well as a standard approach to identify the trait in question when evaluating the results. These applied methods should correspond to simplicity, reliability, be easily reproducible, and also have sufficient sensitivity and very high specificity.
In general, the practice of health care in the nature of screening examinations represents mass gynecological examinations, including fluorography and mammography. A wide application was received for screening in cardiology, pharmacology, oncology and medical genetics.
Screening for pregnancy appears in the life of a pregnant woman in the first trimester. These tests, thanks to which are visible all the deviations of hormones during pregnancy.
Screening for pregnancy is important to prevent the risk of congenital malformations (neural tube defect), genetic diseases ( Down's Syndrome , Edwards Syndrome ). The result itself becomes known after the blood test from the vein, as well as the ultrasound readings. In consideration of everything - individual characteristics of the pregnant woman (indications of height, weight, the presence of harmful habits, the use of hormones).
Screening for the first trimester includes an examination during the period from 11 to 13 weeks of pregnancy . His task is to identify the risk of possible birth crumbs with congenital malformations. Self-screening during pregnancy consists of two tests - ultrasound examination, as well as a study of venous blood.
In itself, the first ultrasound is important for determining the constitution of the crumbs, as well as the correct location of the legs, hands, fetal blood system, body length, heart function.
It is necessary to remember and testimonies of screening of pregnant women, this is confirmed by the fact that after the first trimester it is too early to draw conclusions. And if genetic defects are suspected at the genetic level, additional studies are mandatory. Screening for pregnancy in the first trimester is not an obligatory method of research for women, but if the doctor insists, it is worth a test, because women are screened for pregnancy at high risk of pathology. In this category, those who give birth after 35 years, as well as who in the family have patients at the genetic level, or women who have had miscarriages in the past, fall into this category.
During the first trimester, b-hCG (Free b-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin) and RAPP-A (plasma protein) analysis are performed.
During the second screening in the period (terms from 16 to 18 weeks), analyzes are made on three hormones - b-hCG, free estriol and AFP, but it happens that the fourth indicator, inhibin A., is added.
Let us explain what kind of hormones are, and what effect they have on pregnancy.
The content of hCG is determined in the maternal serum and is one of the important hormones in pregnancy. Screening during pregnancy determines the level of hCG, and if it is lowered - indicates a pathology of the placenta. With increased content of the hormone, a chromosomal fetal disorder occurs, indicating that two or more toddlers are born.
The test of PAPP-A in pregnancy is the determination of the amount of protein A produced in the blood (Albumin) and it is screening in pregnancy that can detect the level of this protein. A significant decrease in protein indicates chromosomal abnormalities, which in turn suggests the possibility of Down's syndrome, as well as Edwards syndrome.
As for the level of estriol - this is a female steroid sex hormone in the blood, which is measured by screening during the second trimester of pregnancy. The placenta produces estriol during pregnancy, but if it happens that it is not enough, then it indicates a violation in the development of the fetus.
Alpha-fetoprotein or (AFP) is found in the mother's blood, being a specific protein produced during pregnancy. It happens that if the development of the fetus is disturbed, the result will affect the level of AFP in the blood, it then goes down, it rises. The increase will indicate the occurrence and development of congenital malformations, as well as diseases, and a decrease in the presence of Down's syndrome. A sharp rise in the increase in the amount of AFP will lead to the death of the fetus.
At not so iridescent results of screening at pregnancy keep itself in arms or hand and do not panic. You need to go through an additional consultation with a geneticist-doctor.
Often, screening for pregnancy indicates the presence of a problem and most likely it is associated with the appointment of hormonal drugs, as well as late delivery of tests
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