Syphilis is a classic sexually transmitted disease (Venereal disease), caused by Treponema pallidum (pale treponema). Syphilis is characterized by a fairly slow progressive course with periods of exacerbation that change periods of remission. считается наиболее опасным из заболеваний передающихся половым путем вследствие того, что оно поражает практически все органы и системы человека (кожные покровы, слизистые оболочки, нервную систему, внутренние органы, кости) This venereal disease is considered to be the most dangerous of sexually transmitted diseases due to the fact that it affects almost all human organs and systems (skin, mucous membranes, nervous system, internal organs, bones)
The causative agent of syphilis
The causative agent of syphilis is pale treponema, which is very unstable outside the human body and dies pretty quickly. In a moist environment pale treponema retains its vital functions for several hours, but when it dries up, when the temperature rises to fifty degrees, when it interacts with alcohol or soap, it dies very quickly (within 20-30 minutes). Pale treponema is able to reproduce exclusively in the human body, in which it is introduced through microscopic cracks on the mucous membranes and skin integuments
Infection with syphilis
The most common method of infection with syphilis is oral, anal and vaginal sex. In addition, it is possible to transmit infection to the newborn during labor (when passing through the birth canal of the sick mother), and also through breast milk during feeding.
Household infection with syphilis, as well as infection with blood transfusion and organ transplantation is extremely rare.
The likelihood of contracting syphilis with a single sexual contact with the carrier of infection is about 30%.
The incubation period of syphilis usually lasts from three to four weeks, but there have been cases of lengthening the incubation period to three to six months, and its shortening to ten to fifteen days. In this period, the patient has serological reactions negative and completely lacks clinical manifestations of the disease
There are three stages of syphilis:
- Primary syphilis . At the site of the pathogen, three to four weeks later, a round syphilitic ulcer (solid chancre) with dented clear edges and even bottom is formed. Due to its painlessness, the ulcer can remain unnoticed long enough and starts to hurt only when a secondary infection is attached. It is possible the formation of several ulcers with a semilunar, linear or oval form. A characteristic sign of a syphilitic ulcer is its spontaneous, complete disappearance even without treatment. Many at this moment think that the illness has passed, but unfortunately it is not, just syphilis passes to the next stage of its development. In this period the patient is the most infectious, since the contents of a solid chancre contain a very large amount of treponem. In the next stage, the bacteria migrate from the syphilitic ulcer to the lymph node (which causes it to increase while maintaining painlessness), then into the blood with which they are carried throughout the human body. At first, serological reactions are negative (a little late), but already on the sixth - seventh week they begin to positivize
- Secondary syphilis . This period begins four to ten weeks after the onset of syphilitic ulcers and characterized by the appearance on the skin of a person an abundant rash (including soles and palms), in the form of hardly noticeable and non-disturbing spots, pustules and nodules. , повышением общей температуры тела (симптомы похожи на грипп ), по всему телу увеличиваются лимфатические узлы. The appearance of the rash is often accompanied by a general malaise, headache , an increase in the overall body temperature (the symptoms are similar to the flu ), the lymph nodes increase throughout the body. Secondary syphilis is characterized by alternation of exacerbations and remissions, which can last for several years. During this entire period, serological reactions are positive
- Tertiary syphilis . Comes after five or more years, in the absence of specific treatment and is characterized by the emergence of gum - syphilitic tubercles that can appear in almost any organ of the human body (brain, liver, heart, kidneys), bones and skin integuments. After a certain period of time, the gums are partially decomposed, simultaneously destroying the organ in which they were formed. When the nasal septum is affected, it collapses, and the nose falls; ulcerated mucous membranes of the hard and soft palate, nose and posterior pharyngeal wall. The spinal cord and brain are affected, resulting in progressive paralysis and dementia. The tertiary period of syphilis is characterized by the absence in the lesions of treponemia and weakly positive or negative serological reactions
First of all, I want to focus on the fact that the treatment of syphilis must necessarily be handled by a qualified doctor - a venereologist, since a wrongly selected treatment scheme or an incorrectly selected medication will only aggravate this disease. If treatment is started at an early stage of the disease, the cure for syphilis can occur in two to three months; In the case of starting treatment at a later date, the duration of therapy can last up to two years.
Treatment of syphilis is necessarily complex and strictly individual. The basis of treatment are antibiotics (erythromycin, tetracycline, sumamed, penicillin, etc.), as well as immunomodulating and immunostimulating drugs. In addition, the patient must strictly observe the recommended regimen (taking multivitamins, balanced nutrition, full sleep) and the necessary intervals and frequency of courses of treatment for syphilis.
In each case, the doctor individually selects the necessary drugs and their dosage, and if necessary, additionally appoints the intake of enzyme preparations, vitamin complexes and physiotherapy procedures.
Treatment of a sexual partner should be mandatory.