Seasonal allergy is an allergic reaction, which is a protective response of the immune system to various foreign inclusions in the inspired air. In most cases, an allergic reaction is observed on allergens, contact with which occurs in the fresh air, it is usually mold and pollen.
Seasonal allergy in children usually manifests itself at a certain time of the year, but occasionally it can occur all the year round, in case of constant contact with a provoking allergen. Usually, this allergic reaction is manifested by seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis (conjunctivitis) and allergic rhinitis, or pollen seasonal bronchial asthma.
In the event that the child has an allergic reaction to fruit juices and mashed potatoes, in the spring and summer it should be especially attentive. in this case, after three years the baby may develop a seasonal allergy to pollen . If you look superficially, at first glance, there is nothing in common between dandelion and melon, carrot and alder. However, numerous biological studies have shown that in the composition of pollen and fruit of plants there are identical protein molecules, which are the cause of the development of cross-allergic reactions. If a kid's cheeks are red with cherry jam, it is possible that he will sneeze and cough after walking along the birch grove. But if a child is allergic to citrus , a strong cold can cause a bouquet of chamomiles
Seasonal Allergies - Causes
Like all other allergic reactions, seasonal allergies are caused by an attack of immune protection by allergens entering the body through the skin, with food or inhaled air. With seasonal allergies, reaction-provoking allergens, along with inhaled air, enter the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract (lungs, throat, nose and mouth) and eyes. It is very difficult to determine the specific allergen most often. After the initiation of contacting the provoking allergen with the mucous membranes, the white blood cells start to produce antibodies to these foreign substances, which subsequently leads to the development of an allergic reaction, which is sometimes called hypersensitivity to substances that are harmless in nature.
Flower pollen is the most common allergen in seasonal allergies. Pollen - formed in flowers (the male part of the reproductive organs of all flowering plants) microscopic particles. Pollen of wind-pollinated plants carries with the movement of air, pollinating (fertilizing) other plants of its kind. Depending on the local climate, for each plant species there is a certain period of pollen release. Some plants are pollinated in spring, others in summer or in the beginning of autumn. And the farther north, the period of pollination occurs later. Pollen of some grasses, trees and weeds (ambrosia, etc.) as a cause of the development of an allergic reaction is likely more than others. Pollen pollinated by insects plants is much less allergen than pollen of wind-pollinated.
Mold fungi are another fairly common allergen. Mold is a fairly large group of mushroom families that do not form fruiting bodies. Spores of fungi in contrast to pollen are observed in the air constantly, and their concentration depends on the current conditions, and not on the season. Mold fungi are extremely common and can occur both in the open air, and in agricultural and residential areas. They feel great in the soil, on damp wood and rotting plant remains. In rooms, they often live in places where the air does not circulate freely (bathrooms, attics, cellars, etc.).
The risk factors for the development of seasonal allergies include: the presence of this allergic disease in blood relatives, bronchial asthma , eczema, periodic contact with a provoking allergen, polyps of the nasal cavity. With age, the type of allergens to which an allergic reaction is observed can change, as often the symptomatology itself changes.
Periods of development of seasonal allergies:
• Spring - the time of flowering hazel, platans, maples and birches
• Summer - the period of flowering flowers and cereals
• Autumn - the period of flowering of Compositae (wormwood, quinoa, ragweed)
Allergy seasonal - symptoms
Manifestations of seasonal allergies are not always horrible. In some people, the allergic reaction proceeds quite tolerably, without noticeable changes in appearance and abundant rhinitis. In this case, change the established rhythm of life is not worth it. However, there may be quite severe cases of allergic manifestations, when an obligatory visit to an allergist is required. Nevertheless, even if the symptoms of seasonal allergies are poorly expressed, treatment is still necessary, as the implicit pattern at first can begin to progress, gradually shifting to bronchial asthma and autoimmune diseases.
The main symptoms of seasonal allergies are: a runny nose with a discharge of liquid clear discharge, sneezing, nasopharyngeal swelling, nasal congestion, a feeling of stuffiness in the ears (in the ear), reddened tearing eyes, insomnia, loss of strength, fatigue, burning and itching in the nose, irritation of the conjunctiva and soft palate, a rash on various areas of skin (between the fingers, the lower abdomen, the groin, etc.)
In the case of emerging symptoms of seasonal allergies, do not delay with a visit to the doctor. With the help of a simple procedure, a qualified allergist will easily determine the type of plant that negatively affects health. The diagnosis itself consists in conducting skin tests with a set of pollen allergens most common in the place of residence of the patient
Seasonal allergy - treatment
Fortunately, the seasonal allergy of specialized treatment does not always require and often it is quite enough to conduct simple hygienic procedures and to exclude contact with a provoking allergen. If these measures were not enough, you can buy an antiallergic drug in any pharmacy.
Avoid contact with suspected or known allergens. This is achieved by installing in the room protective air filters. Also, doors and windows should be carefully closed, and in case of inevitable contact with the allergen, it is necessary to use protective dressings on the nose and mouth, as well as gloves.
It is necessary to take shower as often as possible, change clothes, and carry out wet cleaning. You should also get rid of curtains, carpets, carpets and other things that can accumulate dust in large quantities.
In the presence of mild symptoms, the washing of the nose and rinsing of the throat with slightly salted warm water (200 ml of water of 2 tablespoons of table salt) are good enough. To relieve itching in the throat, eyes and to reduce the common cold, you can take non-prescription antihistamines (Diphenhydramine, etc.), but you should be aware that such drugs have a retarding effect and are strictly prohibited when driving cars or other vehicles and mechanisms of increased danger.
In case of insufficiency of simple measures, with acute or persistent symptoms, it is necessary to carry out drug treatment, not only to eliminate and alleviate the symptoms, but also to prevent them.
Treatment of seasonal allergies with medicines
Corticosteroid nasal sprays Fluticasone, Triamcinolone, Beclomethasone, in the overwhelming majority of cases are most effective. Due to the fact that they are applied topically and in an insignificant dosage, these sprays are almost completely devoid of the side effects that characterize corticosteroid preparations. Also, sprays successfully remove puffiness, eliminate itching and nasal congestion, do not cause drowsiness. To achieve a sustainable effect, they should be taken daily for several days.
Another common medication prescribed for the treatment of seasonal allergies are antihistamines, which in most countries are on sale without a prescription (Hydroxysin, Dimedrol, Tripelennamine, Clemastin). All listed antihistamines are relatively inexpensive and are in free sale, but the effect lasts for a relatively short time and besides, they have a strong sedative effect, so they are categorically contraindicated to people who, due to their professional activities, require a quick reaction. I would also like to note that in the case of constant reception, with time the sedative effect decreases, but this also applies to the antiallergic effect too. Alternatively, the use of long-acting drugs such as Desloratadine, Loratadine, Fexofenadine is possible. Despite the fact that they are more expensive and usually released only on prescription, they should be taken only once a day, and the sedative effect after taking is almost not felt.