Diabetes mellitus is a disease caused by insufficient pancreatic secretion of the hormone insulin responsible for the regulation of glucose (sugar) in the blood. This disease is characterized by a violation of carbohydrate metabolism with an increase in glucose in the urine and blood, as well as other metabolic disorders. To date, according to statistics, this disease on our planet suffers about one hundred and fifty million people.
Diabetes mellitus distinguishes two main types: insulin-dependent (type 1 diabetes) and insulin-independent (type 2 diabetes). In this article we will consider the first type.
In most cases, insulin-dependent diabetes develops in people under the age of forty, while a person must constantly inject insulin. The main cause of the development of type 1 diabetes is the death of beta cells responsible for the synthesis of insulin, as a result of which the production of this hormone either completely ceases, or significantly decreases. This happens under the influence of various factors: viral infections, autoimmune process, etc.
After the virus enters the human body and is detected by the immune system, antibodies are produced that destroy the virus. However, due to the individual characteristics of the immune system, the synthesis of antibodies does not stop even after the destruction of foreign agents and they begin to attack the cells of their own organism while destroying the beta cells of the pancreas
Causes of diabetes
The main predisposing factor for the onset of this disease is heredity. The risk of diabetes is very high if one of close relatives (mother, father, sister, brother) suffers from this disease. According to statistics, the probability of inheritance along the line of the father is 10%, and on the mother's line - about 7%. In case this disease is present in both parents, the likelihood of diabetes is increased to 70%.
Also one of the predisposing factors is obesity, so throughout life you need to closely monitor your weight. Also, the death of beta cells is possible due to the damage to the pancreas as a result of certain diseases (pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, diseases of the endocrine glands). In this case, a stupid trauma to the abdominal cavity can be a provoking factor.
, краснуха и пр. Данные инфекции выступают в роли спускового механизма, запускающего развитие диабета. In addition, viral infections can lead to the death of cells synthesizing insulin: epidemic hepatitis, chicken pox, influenza , rubella, etc. These infections act as triggers triggering the development of diabetes. In a completely healthy person, these diseases can not cause a development of diabetes, but in combination with such factors as obesity and heredity, it is likely.
Chronic stress conditions, taking certain medications, various hormonal disorders, prolonged alcohol abuse, and natural aging processes also increase the risk of developing diabetes mellitus
The main signs of a person's diabetes are:
- Despite the present constant feeling of hunger, there is rapid weight loss
- Feeling of thirst and frequent urination
- Feeling of general weakness or fatigue
- Numbness and tingling in numb limbs
- Blurred vision, the so-called "white shroud" before the eyes
- Violation of sexual activity
- Feeling of heaviness in the legs
- Slow healing of infectious diseases
- Itching in the perineum and itchy skin
- Falling body temperature lower than normal
- Cramping of the calf muscles and fatigue
- Slow healing of wounds
- Pain sensations in the region of the heart
Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is established on the basis of such diagnostic signs as: elevated fasting blood glucose level, the appearance of sugar in the urine, increased consumption and, accordingly, discharge of urine fluid, weight loss, urinary ketone release
Treatment of diabetes mellitus
For treatment use insulin, oral hypoglycemic drugs, diet and exercise therapy. The main goal of therapeutic measures is to restore normal body weight and normalize disturbed metabolic processes; recovery / retention of work capacity, as well as treatment / prevention of vascular complications.
Artificially synthesized insulin (protein hormone) is very widely used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent). It can be injected solely by injection, as in case of getting into the stomach, it collapses and thus can not realize its direct biological purpose. This drug is released in a special syringe-tube, so that the patient can easily make a prick when he feels that he needs it. In most cases, at the very beginning of the disease, the body still has cells producing insulin, but their number is very small and does not meet the necessary needs of the body. After insulin begins to come from outside, additional load from these cells is removed and they after a certain period of time begin to synthesize more insulin. During this period, the dose of insulin administered may decrease. This process occurs in patients in the first year of the course of the disease and unfortunately lasts only for a short time. After its completion, insulin doses increase again
With all clinical forms of diabetes mellitus, sticking to a certain diet is a vital necessity.
The main principles of dietotherapy include: strictly individual selection of daily caloric intake, complete elimination of easily digestible carbohydrates; strictly calculated content of physiological amounts of fats, proteins, vitamins and carbohydrates; fractional food with evenly distributed carbohydrates and calories. In the diet used in diabetes, the ratio of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in consumed food should be as close to physiological as possible: 50 to 60% of the total number of calories should account for carbohydrates, 25 - 30% for fats and 15 - 20% for proteins. Also, the diet should contain for one kilogram of body weight at least 4 - 4.5 grams of carbohydrates, 1 - 1.5 grams of protein and 0.75 - 1.5 grams of fat in a daily dosage.
The main rule of the diet for diabetes is the complete elimination or significant restriction of eating refined carbohydrates, while their total should be about 125 grams per day (to prevent ketoacidosis).