роды ребенка фото Female labor is a natural but very complex physiological process. Childbirth equates to a small operation. During childbirth, the natural ejection of the fetus occurs, as well as the afterbirth from the uterine cavity along the birth canal. The composition of the afterbirth includes an umbilical cord, a placenta, a fetal membrane. The basis of the delivery itself is a certain mechanism of birth.

Childbirth can occur in different variations :

- the traditional way in a medical hospital

- childbirth in the water

- vertical childbirth

- birth in your home

The mechanism of normal classical genera includes translational and rotational movements of the fetus during passage through the small pelvis, and also during movement through the mild birth canal. Passage of the child's head occurs simultaneously with the beginning of regular labor. During the movement through the birth canal, the head of the crumb does a number of consecutive movements slowly. Fetal movements directly depend on the very presentation of the fetus. For normal healthy births, the occipital forehead is characteristic either in the anterior or posterior form of the baby's back. The mechanism of labor during which the occipital presentation of the child anteriorly occurs in 95% of women. With these genera, the back of the baby's head is facing the entrance to the small pelvis itself, and the back of the crumb is ahead.

There are 4 points in the process of delivery:

The very first moment is the bending of the baby's head (flexion), namely the rotation of the head around the front (transverse) axis. As a result of bending one of the poles of the head (small fontanel), it becomes the lower point, which moves ahead of the head. This very point is called a wired point, since it is she who first descends into the small pelvis of a woman and the first appears from the sexual slit.

The second point is the inner turn of the baby's head with the occiput anteriorly (rotation), namely the rotation of the child's head around the longitudinal axis. This rotation leads to the fact that the back of the head turns anteriorly, and the area of ​​the large fontanel is backward. Producing rotation, the head comes from a transverse dimension or an oblique pelvis in a straight line. And this turns the head of the crumbs, and the small fontanelle turns to the pubic symphysis.

The third point will be the extension of the head (deflection), and it will become when the head of the suboccipital region of the fossa takes place under the pubic arch. The area of ​​the suboccipital fossa is the fulcrum and at the same time the fixation point, around which the head rotates at the moment of extension. The very beginning of the extension of the head is the eruption of the head.

At the fourth moment, the crumbs of the crumb become transverse, begin to enter obliquely or across into the small pelvis. In the small pelvis, their turn takes place and at the moment of exit from the pelvis they unfold in a direct amount. One shoulder refers to the pubic symphysis, and the second will be turned to the sacrum. In the process of turning the trunk and shoulders, the child's head makes an external turn and unfolds at the first position: the back is directed to the left side of the uterus, and the occiput to the left thigh of the woman. At the moment of the second position, the frontal back looks at the right side of the uterus, namely the right hip. After the shoulder belt is born. Appears upper third of the shoulder, directed to the front, and then the shoulders, facing backward. At the end appears the trunk and, of course, the limb of the fetus.

"You will not remain pregnant" - so doctors usually support future mothers. And the words "tune in to a positive and favorable birth" sound more, as acceptable for the psyche, worried pregnant women. Fear of unknown births covers all pregnant women, and when the baby decides that the moment has come to appear before the mother, everything happens swiftly and according to the scenario. If there are no medical contraindications, then the woman gives birth traditionally.

– это сложный активный процесс. Childbirth is a complex and active process. Before giving birth in a few days, the female body begins to prepare. Appears precursors of fights, which do not have a clear periodicity. A woman senses drawing unpleasant pains in the lower abdomen, as well as the lower back.

1st period of labor activity

During this period the bouts regularly remind themselves of themselves. They are characterized by the presence of pulling pains in the lower abdomen, as well as the lower back. Over time, fights intensify. For the first fights, the interval is from 9 to 15 minutes, and the duration is a few seconds. Sensations are unpleasant and painful. Then the contractions gain strength by pain, and also by duration. This period can last up to 12 hours.

Amniotic fluid or amniotic fluid is a fluid surrounding the baby environment, which provides him with normal vital activity. The waste of amniotic fluid, as well as mucous plugs often occurs at the very beginning of labor. Getting in the birth canal, the waters are washed by them, and then in the future they help the crumb to move forward. The lower part of the bladder helps to successfully open the cervix.

The period after the start of the first fights and before the opening of the cervix itself to 5 cm is called a latent phase. Then there is an active phase. After the opening of the cervix, the onset of intense labor and the opening of the uterine pharynx began at 8 cm. In time, this takes up to 4 hours. The pain intensifies as much as possible, and in the meantime the child's head descends to the level of the pelvic floor. Then comes the deceleration phase, which lasts up to two hours. At this time, the cervix can open up to 15 cm. All time intervals of fights are indicated conditionally and approximately. In the generic process there is the concept of accelerated labor for second-born women

2nd period of labor activity

The moment has come. What it is? These are reflex contractions of the muscles of the abdominal press, the uterus, and also the diaphragm. If the mother is breathing correctly, then she will help herself in attempts. During this period, the presenting part of the fruit appears. And if there was a head presentation of the child, then one can observe the eruption of the head.

The birth of a crumb, or the birth of the child itself, occurs at once, as the head ceases to leave and hides deep into the hearth after exertion. On average, the birth of a baby occurs within ten attempts and lasts about an hour. After the birth of the baby, the umbilical cord is cut at the moment of stopping pulsation

3rd period of labor

During this period, the placenta is separated, as well as the exit of the placenta. All this takes up to 3 fights. And then begins a thorough examination of the newborn and mother. For childbirth is the doctor's responsibility, and the midwife is already helping the mother in childbirth and is doing the newborn's treatment

Cesarean section

These are births that are transformed by Caesarean section from a standard physiological process into a complex surgical operation. During cesarean section, the baby is removed from the incision of the abdominal wall, as well as the uterus. This method is used when there is an urgent need, and in the event that there are medical contraindications to give birth independently. The decision is made either in advance or at the time of delivery in unfavorable situations. The disadvantages of this method are in severe rehabilitation after childbirth. The first few days after the delivery, you need medical care, special food. And only the child brought on the next day, helps to adequately transfer all the difficulties and pains

Childbirth with her husband

It has long been no secret that the presence of a husband at birth helps a woman morally to cope with the pain. Joint births with her husband unite two loving people, strengthens their marriage; a man begins to appreciate a woman, her heroism, is imbued with her pain. – это самые сильные эмоциональные положительные переживания мужчин в жизни. The birth of a child is the strongest emotional positive experience of men in life. Therefore, if it is possible to give birth with your husband, then do not give up on it.

If your husband is cardinally against being present at the time of the birth of the child, then do not insist on your own. Perhaps, for that there are reasons and fears. Let the sacrament of birth remain a secret to him. From this your love will not weaken. You can find a middle ground. When a husband is present before attempts, and then waiting outside the door and enters after the appearance of the child. As a result, the husband was born and his psyche is not traumatized.

Childbirth is a very difficult process. Nature provides stretching the perineum for the birth of a child. But the perineum has its limits, and as a result, tears occur. They arise for the following reasons:

- physiological inelasticity of tissues. This primarily refers to the first birth of women older than 30 years, and also if the mother has a large fetus, if there are scars from past births, an anatomically narrow pelvis, there are inflammation of the vagina, weakness of labor, rapid as well as rapid delivery; emergency surgery (using obstetric forceps if necessary, as well as vacuum extraction of the fetus). The psychological factor, as well as the inadequate behavior of a woman during childbirth and her reluctance to listen to the obstetrician's recommendations, can serve as breaks.

Gaps during delivery are external as well as internal. External gaps occur at the exit from the vagina itself, and internal ruptures on the walls of the uterus. Gaps are divided by severity. External gaps:

I degree - a rupture of the wall of the vagina itself, as well as the skin of the perineum

II degree - the gums of the pelvic floor

III degree - a rupture of the sphincter in the anus is added, as well as a small part of the rectal wall

Internal Breaks:

I degree - crotch gaps reach no more than 2 cm

II degree - more than 2 cm and not reaching the arches of the vagina

III degree - reach the lateral arches of the vagina and affect them

The main symptom of the rupture during delivery will be bleeding.

Prevention of ruptures during labor includes relaxation exercises, perineal massage with oils and proper breathing, which will help manage your emotions and fears.

If the gap does occur, the doctor will examine the woman, assessing the degree of damage and performing surgical manipulations (sews up, and also applies seams). With increased bleeding, the doctor applies a clamp. The material for seams is more often used, which will dissolve independently. With strong tears, silk stitches are used, which are removed for 5 days.

If the gynecologist sees that during the delivery of a strong rupture can not be avoided, then he makes a cut of the perineum. These incisions are not carried out at the will of the mother in order to facilitate the birth process.

The perineal incision is made to facilitate the passage of the child and reduce the burden on the cervical spine, as well as the spine. Gynecologists do this operation at the following signs:

- strong protrusion of the perineum and tension of the tissues to shine; swelling of the tissues and pallor of the skin, as well as the appearance of cracks and the development of hypoxia in the child; in the case of preterm labor and high blood pressure; in the presence of various heart defects and pelvic presentation of the baby.

The cut of the perineum is produced even when the head is visible and complications arise. And after the exit of the doctor, the doctor sews up the sutures, first anesthetizing the woman in childbirth.

Observation by medical specialists in the maternity hospital at normal births reaches up to five days, and at a caesarean section from 7 days.

More articles on this topic:

1. Pregnancy of a woman 3. Postpartum period in women

2. Ectopic pregnancy 4. Postpartum depression