Allergy tests are various ways of diagnosing a variety of allergic diseases. Carrying out of the given samples allows to establish with accuracy the source of development of allergic reaction by definition of hypersensitivity of the person to entered at carrying out of testing different allergens. Allergy tests include provocative tests, indirect and direct tests for allergy, skin tests of qualitative and quantitative nature. All these ways of diagnostics are united by the fact that a possible irritant, which causes an allergic reaction in a person, is introduced into his body, and then an assessment of the response of the organism to its administration is carried out. Allergy tests should be done only during a period of persistent remission, and to be more precise, no earlier than thirty days after the end of the aggravation of the allergic disease.
Allergy tests are indicated if the following conditions exist:
• Bronchial asthma causing shortness of breath, difficulty breathing and suffocation
• Seasonal allergy to flower pollen, which is accompanied by itching in the nose, continuous sneezing, nasal congestion and runny nose
• Atopic dermatitis , manifested by skin eruptions
• Allergic rhinitis causing a copious rhinitis
• Allergic conjunctivitis , manifested by reddening of the eyes, itching and lacrimation
• Food allergies , accompanied by itchy skin rashes
Allergy tests are quite specific methods of diagnosis, for which there is a really huge amount of drugs made from pollen of grasses, trees, dandruff and wool of various animals, concentrated house dust, etc. Also, when diagnosed, preparations based on ticks, mushrooms, bacterial, food and chemical stimuli.
You can make allergy tests by several methods:
• Scarification tests. On pre-cleaned skin of the forearm according to the pre-made special markings, various allergens are drip-drip, through which then a single scratcher makes small scratches
• Application skin tests. To the undamaged area of the skin is applied a pre-moistened in allergenic solution cotton swab
• Prik tests. In its conduct this method is very similar to the scarification tests, with the only difference being that instead of scratching with a scarifier, through the drops of allergens, light shallow injections with disposable needles
When carrying out this type of allergy diagnosis, no more than fifteen allergens are used at a time. Often samples for allergies in children are held by the same allergen, only in different concentrations. If the subject has an allergic reaction to one of the tested allergens, the place of puncture or scratch begins to swell, blush, skin rashes appear around. In allergological practice, skin tests are the most common method of diagnosis.
Assessment of skin tests for allergy begins depending on the allergen used. If the first test results are obtained after twenty minutes from the moment of contact with the allergen, the later results are estimated not earlier than after one or two days. After deciphering all the samples, the patient receives a paper with the results obtained, in which the following inscription can be opposite each tested allergen: weakly positive, positive, doubtful, negative.
Allergy tests for skin tests are never limited. Together with them, in any form of allergy, a blood test is shown to determine the type of allergic reaction.
Provocative tests for allergies are prescribed in the case when there is a clear discrepancy between dermatological samples for allergy and anamnestic data. An indirect dermatological test consists of injecting a subcutaneous injection of a specific stimulus to a person, after which the serum of the patient's blood is injected with this kind of allergy. According to the obtained reaction, a conclusion is drawn about the danger to a person of this particular allergen.
Before passing the samples for allergies, each person should be adequately prepared. The first task is to determine whether at least thirty days have elapsed since the last allergic reaction. In addition, in the testing process, you need to be prepared for the fact that an organism can have an unforeseen reaction to an introduced allergen and, accordingly, emergency medical care will be required. It follows that carrying out any tests for allergy should only take place in a medical facility under the vigilant supervision of a doctor. At least one day before the beginning of the allergy test, you should stop taking any antiallergic drugs. On the procedure itself, you need to tune in positively and calm down. subcutaneous injections are absolutely bloodless and painless.
Contraindications to allergy tests: age over sixty years, pregnancy , worsening of allergies, colds, long-term therapy with hormonal drugs, taking antiallergic medications at this time.