Diarrhea is a rapid (more rarely, one-time) emptying of the intestine, with the release of liquid feces associated with accelerating the passage of intestinal contents, due to impaired absorption of water by the large intestine, strengthening peristalsis, and also as a consequence of secretion of a significant amount of transudate or inflammatory secretion by the intestinal walls. In most cases, diarrhea (diarrhea) is a symptom of enteritis or acute / chronic colitis.
Diarrhea is divided into:
- Alimentary diarrhea. Occur due to allergic reactions to any kind of food, or malnutrition.
- Infectious diarrhea. They are the result of food toxic infections, salmonellosis, dysentery, amoebiasis, viral diseases, etc.
- Diarrheal diarrhea. Occur due to insufficient isolation of certain enzymes by the small intestine, secretory deficiency of the pancreas, stomach and liver, and also because of disruption of digestion of food masses.
- Neurogenic diarrhea. They arise as a result of a disturbance in the nervous regulation of the motor activity of the intestine (under the influence of excitement or fear).
- Toxic diarrhea. May be due to poisoning with mercury or arsenic, and also accompany uremia.
- Medicamentous diarrhea. Appear due to suppression of the physiological flora of the intestine and against the background of the development of dysbiosis.
Also distinguish between acute and chronic diarrhea:
It lasts for less than three weeks and is a consequence of infections and parasitic infestations (lambiosis, amoebiasis, cholera, salmonella, dysentery, trichinosis, etc.), endogenous and exogenous intoxications (poisonous fungi, mercury, arsenic, and uremia), exposure various drugs (some types of antibiotics, laxatives, goritsvet, etc.), as well as due to food allergies
It may be persistent or recurrent and may persist for months, and in some cases even years. Observed with ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, chronic pancreatitis, ischemic colitis, syndrome of impaired absorption and digestion, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, endocrine diseases (pheochromocytoma, diabetes, thyrotoxicosis), colon cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, functional intestinal diseases, parasitic and infectious diseases (ascaridosis, dysbacteriosis, campylococcus infection, ierseniosis, etc.). Also, chronic diarrhea can be the result of various surgical interventions (resection of the pancreas, stomach, intestines and vagotomy)
The course and symptoms of diarrhea
The nature of the feces depends on the disease. The frequency of the stool may be different, and stool masses are mushy or watery. So, for example, with amoebiasis, feces contain blood and vitreous mucus; when dysentery - in the beginning the feces have a fairly dense consistency, then it becomes liquid and lean, blood and mucus appear in it. Also, diarrhea can be accompanied by pain in the abdomen and its swelling, rumbling, sensation of transfusion. In some cases, fever, nausea and vomiting are possible.
Non-durable light diarrhea practically does not affect the general condition of patients, but chronic and severe in most cases lead to significant depletion, pronounced changes in internal organs, hypovitaminosis.
To determine the cause of diarrhea, bacteriological and coprological examination is carried out. In cases of the slightest suspicion of food poisoning, salmonellosis or cholera - patients are subject to immediate hospitalization in the infectious disease department
Treatment of diarrhea
Since diarrhea is not an independent disease, but solely a consequence of any violation in the body, the treatment is aimed at eliminating the root cause of its occurrence. For example, with pancreatic insufficiency, the use of enzyme preparations (mezim forte, festal, creon, etc.) is shown. A chemically / mechanically sparing diet is indicated with the mandatory exception of foods that can enhance secretory and motor evacuation functions. To restore eubiosis, antibacterial agents are used that do not disturb the balance of the microbial flora in the intestine (nifuroxazide, inte- trix, etc.). Apply a variety of antibacterial drugs (hilak forte, bifikol, linex, bifidumbacterin, enterol, lactobacterin, etc.). As symptomatic agents, bismuth preparations, tanalbine, calcium preparations are used; broths from the root of the coil, the herbs of St. John's wort, the bark of oak, lapchatka, cherry, the flowers of chamomile, etc. Apply astringent, enveloping and adsorbing agents (tanna-comp, smecta, etc.). To slow the intestinal peristalsis used antispasmodics (bacus-copan, papaverine, no-shpa). Also, the drug imodium (loperamide) has a good antidiarrheal effect, which, due to the effect on opiate receptors, reduces motility and intestinal tone (used for motor disorders, gastroenteritis).