Pollinosis (hay fever) is the most common disease of people of any age. Pollinosis - an allergic disease caused by pollen of plants, with primary damage to the eyes and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. Pollen of almost all plants has pronounced allergenic activity, so contact with it in highly sensitive people causes the development of this seasonal disease
Pollinoz - Causes
Flowers, as it turned out, is not always fun. Nectar ambrosia only the ancient Greeks called the food of the gods, whereas all modern physicians consider this plant to be the most dangerous enemy of human health. For the first time, a description of the disease similar to pollinosis occurs in the works of the ancient physician Galen, which survived to this day. A century after it, Van Helmont noted the seasonal nature of the development of asthma and linked it to the possible effects of pollen from plants. And only at the beginning of the 19th century (in 1819) the official communication of the English doctor John Bostock marked the beginning of a history of the disease called hay fever. And English physician Blakely, also suffering from this disease like Bostock, in 1873, exhaustively described the clinic pollinosis. If before the publication of his work was considered to be the cause of the development of the disease, the fragrance of flowers, sunlight and dust, then Blakely presented irrefutable evidence that the development of pollen is due to pollen of plants.
Light on the mechanism of development of this pathology was shed only recently. The reason for the hay fever is not as previously said "hereditary predisposition" to pollen allergy, but directly hereditary disease. This was confirmed by genes that were found not so long ago, which transmit susceptibility to various allergens by inheritance. Usually they are inherited on the maternal line, although sometimes they can also be passed on to the father. There were also works proving the relationship between a particular type of pollinosis and "defective genes."
From all the above it follows - once the pollinosis is considered as a hereditary pathology, then preventive measures should be appropriate. The most important is to limit the contact of the baby with the pollen of allergenic herbs from the first stages of life. It was found that a child who was born during the flowering of trees and / or grass grasses, is more prone to the development of pollinosis, and in its more severe form. The greatest danger awaits the baby during the first six months from the time of birth and in the last three months of the intrauterine period. Hence the conclusion is that if at least one of the potential parents suffers from pollinosis (especially the mother), conception must necessarily be planned. This measure will significantly reduce the risk of pollinosis in the baby
The greatest danger of development of seasonal pollen is wind-pollinated plants, which give a huge mass of small pollen penetrating the pores of the mucous membrane, even through clothing. For example, in Russia the main enemies of patients with pollen are such angiosperms as poplar, oak, birch, hazel, alder (blooms first). The period of their flowering: the middle of April - the second decade of May.
Such gymnosperms as cedar, pine, fir and spruce have pollen of much larger sizes and the allergy to it develops quite rarely. Despite this, Japanese cedar in Japan is one of the main causes of hay fever.
After the trees bloom, the flowering of grass grasses (reigrass, fescue, hedgehog, timothy grass, etc.) begins, which according to the chronology of flowering are enemies number 2. The danger of cereals is also the fact that some of them people eat: oats, wheat, rye. In this case, food is added to the pollen allergy, and no culinary treatment can help.
From the end of June begins bloom Compositae, and the most hard-core for allergic grass from their list, is ragweed, which gives a colossal amount of pollen. Many zones of Russia and the CIS due to the huge spread of ambrosia can be called disaster zones. Annually, thousands of inhabitants develop bronchial asthma caused by ragweed pollen.
I want to emphasize the special attention to the fact that Composita often enter into the formulation of various medicinal fees, and our people are very fond of the treatment with phytopreparations. For the prevention of such a child's disease as scrofula (exudative diathesis), parents often bathe the baby in a decoction of a turn or chamomile, while both these plants contain a huge amount of pollen. If the child has a chromosomal set of the above-described gene, the condition deteriorates sharply. There are described cases of a very severe reaction to chamomile enemas, washing with chamomile infusion, wormwood tea. Absolutely any natural honey can also represent an increased danger, since it contains a huge amount of pollen.
Often, during the period of flowering of the Compositae, a cross reaction with some food products may occur, and the use of nuts and mustard for food is categorically prohibited. A certain threat is represented by peaches, apples and cherries. It's not so simple with alcohol. Champagne to allergic people is not recommended to drink, but vermouth is strictly forbidden, since all its varieties contain wormwood, the reaction to which can be up to anaphylactic shock and Quincke's edema.
Some scientists believe that the danger is only the pollen itself, and if, for example, the apple is properly washed, then the person does not risk anything. This statement is erroneous, as the properties of pollen determine glycoproteins, and they are found in the fruits themselves. However, in this case, it will be food alimentary, but it will not be easier for the patient
Pollinosis - Symptoms
Pollinosis manifests itself as a characteristic triad of symptoms: lacrimation (causes conjunctivitis ), runny nose and bronchospasm. The most typical symptoms of pollinosis are severe itching in the nasal part of the pharynx and the nasal cavity, excruciating sneezing attacks with the discharge of an abundant liquid discharge from the nose, which are replaced by attacks of complete nasal congestion. Then, auditory (Eustachian) tubes and mucous nasopharynx are gradually involved in the allergic process, which is manifested by increased sensitivity to visual and olfactory stimuli, hoarseness of voice and pain in the ears.
In some cases, the only symptom of pollinosis is pollen asthma (bronchospastic syndrome), which is observed in about 30% of patients with other manifestations of pollinosis. Pollen asthma is diagnosed as an isolated syndrome in 5% of patients. In this case, the clinical picture of pollen asthma is very similar to the symptoms of bronchial asthma. Sometimes swelling of the facial part (swelling of Quincke) and hives can be observed.
During the period of exacerbation, the body temperature usually remains within the normal range, although sometimes it can be increased to 39 ℃, the patients have insomnia, weakness, sweating, headache .
Pollinosis in children is often unusual. In pre-school children, a so-called masked pollinosis is often observed, which manifests itself in the ears, which sometimes reaches a complete loss of hearing, with other clinical signs of the disease completely absent. Pollinosis in other children can be manifested only by a slight reddening of the conjunctiva and frequent scratching of the nose ("allergic salute"). In some babies, the disease occurs as a severe bronchial asthma without a cold
Development of Pollinia
Pollinosis develops according to the standard scheme: pollen penetrates the respiratory tract and settles on the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and lungs. In addition, the pollen enters and then remains on the eyeball and the mucous membranes of the eye. Immediately after the ingress of pollen into the body, the immune defense process is started to recognize the allergen. After this happens, the mechanism of producing antibodies capable of suppressing the foreign agent is included. This process allergists call the process of sensitization. The inclination of the organism in the presence of predisposition in the child to allergic reactions can get its start at any age of the baby. To run pollinosis, a minimal amount of pollen is sufficient.
The process of sensitization does not appear in any way. Often, from the moment of the first contact with the allergen before the appearance of clinical signs of an allergic disease, it may take several months.
For example, in the case of a child's contact with ragweed pollen in the case of a baby's predisposition to the development of allergic reactions, his body will immediately begin the process of recognizing the introduced foreign agent, in our case pollens from ragweed. After that, the immune defense produces antibodies that continue to remain in the body before contact with ragweed pollen next year. And it is already the next year, the pollen will be presented in all its "beauty". This process in the development of allergic pollinosis is the final phase and is called the "resolution" process. That's why most parents often wonder why the pollen has developed for no apparent reason, and despite the fact that allergens to which the child was previously completely unreceptive. In fact, during all this time in the baby's body there was a process of sensitization, which turned into an allergy
Diagnosis of pollinosis
In the case of the slightest suspicion of seasonal pollinosis, to avoid possible diseases of a similar nature (pneumonia, acute bronchitis , acute respiratory disease), you should consult a therapist or an allergist. Only a competent allergist-immunologist can make the correct diagnosis - pollinosis and prescribe an adequate treatment for the current condition. In case the sick person is a child, the initial stage of the survey will be a detailed survey of parents about how the baby developed and what diseases he suffered. After this, both in children and adults, the analysis of the contents of the nasal mucosa and a blood test are taken for laboratory testing.
The next diagnostic step is to determine which (for a particular person) pollen is an allergen. The optimal time for allergic tests is the winter season of the year - the absence of both the most irritating factor (pollen) and the specific drugs that enter the body. Thanks to this, the picture of the disease will be most reliable
Most often to determine the provoking allergen pollinosis, allergists apply prick tests or scarification tests. These tests are conducted not earlier than two weeks after the reception of antiallergic drugs was completed and necessarily in the winter.
Allergological tests are carried out as follows. On one of the forearms, a few minor scratches are made, on top of which drops of preparations with a high concentration of various allergens are then applied. Also these allergens can be injected under the skin. After twenty minutes, based on the size of each of the scratches, the doctor visually and determines the appropriate allergen (the more spot on the spot where the allergen is applied, the stronger the person's allergic reaction to this allergen).
However, allergological tests are done for children who have already reached the age of five. For children who are younger, doctors recommend an alternative method of research - a specific study of blood on protein antibodies produced by the immune system in response to the influence of a certain type of pollen. Such a method of research can be carried out throughout the calendar year, without regard to the pharmacological preparations taken by the patient and his state of health. This is the only way to reveal the hay fever in young children. Pollinosis in pregnancy is usually diagnosed in a similar way
Pollinosis - treatment
Unfortunately, modern science can not change the genotype to date, but it can minimize the suffering. Treatment of pollinosis, based on a large advertisement of "miraculous" drugs, often does not bring due results, as helping a person, another drug only harms.
How to treat hay fever, can only recommend a qualified allergist. Most often, to suppress an allergic reaction, the patient is prescribed a course of antihistamines. To reduce the unpleasant sensations associated with the persistent runny nose, it has been shown to instill special vasoconstrictors in the nose.
How to cure the full-bodied sex forever? Unfortunately, for today it is unrealistic, however it is possible to alleviate the symptomatology as much as possible. The main modern treatment for hay fever is a specific hyposensitivity. This method consists in the subcutaneous administration of scanty doses of the allergen given (2-3 injections per week, course of 40 injections). This procedure is carried out exclusively during the absence (in autumn or winter) of pollen in nature. As a result, the body develops resistance to the introduced type of allergen.
Pollinosis is a seasonal allergy, so it can literally be run away, moving to the time of flowering quarantine plants, for example, to the mountains, or a place where your "allergenic plant just does not grow." In the highlanders, the pollen is extremely rare. In case the trip is impossible, it is necessary to try to follow the following recommendations:
• Without extreme necessity (especially during the daytime hot season), try not to leave the premises. It should also be remembered that the maximum concentration of pollen in the air is observed in windy weather
• During flowering of allergenic plants, all outings should be ruled out
• Walking should only be in the evening, best in cloudy weather or after rain
• For window openings, you should always pull gauze or netting and constantly moisturize them. Regularly and timely conduct wet cleaning. To reduce the likelihood of an allergic reaction to household chemicals or dust, you should use a gauze bandage during cleaning
• In the patient's living room, it is necessary to remove soft toys and carpets, because they always collect on themselves just a huge amount of dust
Prevention of pollinosis is including in a certain diet, which can significantly alleviate the condition. As such, the diet is quite simple, however its observance will help to avoid a strong allergic symptomatology. The patient should exclude from his diet the following foods: chicken eggs, chicken meat (otoryochka especially), cherries, pears, honey and beekeeping products, foods with food colors. Also it is necessary to exclude medicines, which contain plant components, since they can become a catalyst for an even more severe allergic reaction
Allergy to antibiotics
Antihistamines that relieve the symptoms of pollinosis deserve special attention, as there is a persistent belief that it is absolutely harmless. In this regard, the abuse of such drugs is simply enormous. People who suspect allergies, without account and due control, take such medicines as suprastin, pipolfen, tavegil, diphenhydramine, etc. Unfortunately, not everything is so simple and often allergic to antibiotics at the same time as pollinosis. For the cancellation of a life-threatening drug, it must be identified as soon as possible.
In addition, categorically contraindicated taking antihistamines in bronchitis, bronchial asthma, difficulty breathing and attacks of wheezing. These drugs dry the pharyngeal mucosa, thicken and so thick sputum and as a result - clog the bronchus lumen and in the deep lungs contribute to the development of infection. In such cases, the reception of liquor-thinning preparations of the opposite effect