Obesity is a disease associated with fat deposition, as well as a sharp increase in body weight. Adipose tissue in the diseased is deposited in all places, but mainly on the abdomen, hips, chin. Physicians talk about the disease as a chronic metabolic disease that occurs at any time interval of a person's life. The consequences of obesity are progressive diseases and high mortality. In general, the increase in Russia is on the increase, and Russians are unanimously recognized in Europe as the thickest. At what the hereditary factor is not dominant
The development of obesity in humans occurs because of an imbalance between absorbed food and energy costs in the body. The development of obesity is favorably promoted by inactivity (a sedentary lifestyle), as well as an excess of carbohydrates (triglycerides), which persists in the human body. The flow of triglycerides into the body is carried out together with food, and then they are synthesized into adipose tissue. Not the least role in the emergence of obesity is hereditary factor, as well as diseases of the endocrine and nervous system. I want to note that overeating does not mean the receipt of a huge number of nutrients. In people predisposed to fattening, even an extra 100 kcal per day can lead to an increase in weight per year to 5 kg. It is proved that as we approach the retirement age, the weight also increases
Symptoms of obesity
Clinical manifestations with different types of obesity are very similar. There are only differences in the distribution of excess fat in the body, as well as on the symptoms of malaises of the nervous and endocrine system. And in general, obese patients have jumps in arterial blood pressure, worried about increased sweating, tachycardia, back pain , constipation , headaches , atherosclerosis and others.
Degrees of obesity
There are 4 degrees of obesity:
The first degree is characterized by an excess of body weight from the norm of weight by 10% and up to 29%
at the 2nd degree, the excess of body weight exceeds the norm of weight from 30% and up to 49%
The third degree of obesity is characterized by an excess of body weight from a normal weight of 50% and 99%
The 4th degree of obesity is characterized by excess body weight from 100% and more
There is a simple way to determine the body mass norm. From your height, translated into centimeters, you need to subtract 100. For example, your height is 155 cm, then the body weight should not exceed 55 kg. With an increase from 165-175 cm, it is necessary to subtract 105, and even if the growth exceeds 175-185 cm, we subtract 110
Types of obesity
Allocate hypothalamic, alimentary-constitutional and endocrine obesity. For hypothalamic obesity, a disorder of hypothalamic functions is characteristic, which is observed in patients with brain tumors, various infections, after injuries. The deposition of fat occurs swiftly on the abdomen, thighs, buttocks. Characteristic is the occurrence of trophic skin changes (striae). Symptoms of hypothalamic obesity: headache, increased blood pressure, sleep disturbances, increased sweating. For the alimentary-constitutional obesity is characterized by a family nature. Primarily develops with a systematic overeating, as well as a violation of diet, and in the absence of any physical exertion. Endocrine obesity is the primary pathology of the endocrine glands. This obesity develops with hypothyroidism or with Itenko-Cushing's disease. Along with the deposition of fat, there are other signs - gynecomastia, feminization, masculinization, hirsutism, striae on the skin. One type of obesity is lipomatosis (Dercum's disease). A distinctive feature is the presence of fatty nodes, very painful in palpation.
In patients with obesity, the second, third and fourth degrees distinguish the changes on the part of the heart and also the vascular system, failures occur in the digestive and lung organs. Patients are concerned about constipation, tachycardia, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, hypertension, back pain, knee arthrosis, and ankle joints, diabetes , women have amenorrhea, infertility , atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease .
In children under 15 years of age, the hypothalamic syndrome of the adolescent period is a frequent cause of weight gain. Appears externally in the form of stretch marks on the skin of the thighs, buttocks, the inner surface of the shoulders, mammary glands. Characteristic of the increase in blood pressure. The cause of hypothalamic obesity in children is craniocerebral trauma, as well as neuroinfection
Treatment of obesity
Those who are ill with the 1st, and also with the 2nd degree of obesity do not always complain about health and try to lead a habitual way of life, although they quickly become tired, and the heart rhythm fails. But with the third or fourth degree of obesity, people are very worried about tachycardia, dyspnea, pain in the heart, hypertension, headaches, drowsiness, atherosclerosis, diabetes, joint diseases, as well as liver and bile ducts.
Those who want to lose weight should systematically engage in morning exercises, jogging, and walking. Contraindications to physical activity will be cancer , joints, lungs, heart, blood vessels, heart attack, angina pectoris, heart aneurysm, as well as aorta, hypertension, heart rhythm pathology, glaucoma, myopia.
With the recommendations of the doctor, once a week, arrange a day of unloading. Starvation distinguish between partial and complete. Partial fasting underlies the treatment of obesity. The stores of fat, deferred by the body, are consumed in the first place, and the coveted weight loss comes. Complete starvation, for the person suffering from excess weight, dangerously irreversible consequences in the liver, acidosis. To successfully treat obesity, you need to consume 50 grams of protein a day. Weight loss of up to two kilograms per month is considered the best option. Treatment of obesity takes a long time, and the main diet for obesity is diet № 8
Diet for obesity
It is necessary to regulate the nutrition, which should be maximally vitaminized, mineralized, balanced and limited in consumption of animal fats and carbohydrates, and the number of proteins must be increased or adhered to the norm. Count the calories when making the menu for weight loss. Calorie should not exceed 1700 kcal. Therapeutic diet for obesity should be fractional, but often up to 6 times a day, while the drunk liquid should be in the diet to 1.2 liters. Food is selected in such a way that at low calories it causes a feeling of satiety. The secret is to include in the diet products with a large volume, but low energy value. It is strictly forbidden to reduce meals 1-2 times a day and overeating at night. When you limit yourself to eating, the food center remains agitated and causes a person to feel unbearable hunger, which leads to nighttime frustration and gluttony. Overeating at night only worsens health, both physical and mental. Weight grows catastrophically upwards and the patient begins to hate himself for weakness.
When preparing dishes, stick to the technology for steaming, baking, cooking, and also introduce freshly prepared dishes from vegetables and fruits into the diet, do not get carried away with hot and stewing, give up salt, and only lightly salt the dishes. Fried, mashed, and chopped dishes are excluded. Use instead of sugar substitutes (xylitol or sorbitol). The temperature should be normal when cooking.
Daily chemical composition of products:
Carbohydrates up to 150 grams
Proteins of animals up to 90-110 grams
Fat vegetable up to 85 grams
Salt (sodium chloride) up to 6 grams
Free liquid (water) up to 1.2 liters
People suffering from obesity at the 1 st and 2 nd degree should limit the consumption of products from flour, potatoes, cereals, sugar, confectionery products, and also to exclude sweet fizzy drinks. The amount of bread consumed in the diet should be reduced to 300 grams (black, gray or rye with bran).
Nutrition at the third and fourth degree differs from the first and second degree by the refusal of cereals and pasta, jam, sweets, and increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables (except potatoes). Salads are seasoned with vegetable oil. Remove from the diet foods rich in cholesterol (egg yolk, liver, kidney). The consumption of butter is reduced to 10 grams, and vegetable fresh and unrefined to 30 ml
Surgical treatment of obesity
Surgical treatment is used when the patient is on the third or has reached the fourth degree of obesity. Surgeons noted that those who underwent operations in the digestive system lost weight rapidly in the future. At present, medicine has safe methods of correction. These include bilio-pancreatic bypass, vertical gastroplasty, insertion of a balloon into the stomach, bandaging of the stomach with a silicone ring, gastric bypass. The main task of surgical operations is to reduce the size of the stomach, which helps to slow the absorption of nutrients into the blood plasma, and further inhibits the growth of fat mass. It should be noted that all operations (except for the placement of the gastric balloon) dramatically change the volume of the stomach, or the distance of movement of the food lump
Prevention of obesity
Obesity and fattening in the future leads to obesity. To prevent obesity, which has arisen from fullness, is much easier than to treat. The consequences of obesity can cause significant harm to well-being and lead to death. First of all, it is a balanced diet, controlling consumed food, fighting overeating, compulsory physical activity, abandoning hungry days leading to overeating. Everyday menu of a person should be filled with fruits, vegetables, juices, that is, as much as possible vitaminized and contain enough fiber, and is limited in filling carbohydrates (cakes, cakes, buns, wheat bread) and animal fats
More articles on this topic:
1. Obesity and bulimia 2. Diet for weight loss