олигофрения фото Oligophrenia - acquired in early childhood or congenital dementia, expressed in a significant underdevelopment of the psyche, affecting primarily the human intellect. Oligophrenia is not a progredient process, but develops as a result of a disease. To assess the degree of mental deficiency, standard psychological tests are conducted, according to the results of which the intellectual coefficient of the subject is determined. Often, oligophrenia is accompanied by vices of physical development. In everyday life, this the disease in children is often called mental retardation, and the child himself is mentally retarded

Causes of Oligophrenia

There are three groups of factors capable of provoking the development of this disease:

, краснуха, гормональные нарушения), иммуноконфликт крови ребенка и матери, наркомания, алкоголизм и другие вредные привычки матери (провоцируют нарушения снабжения плода питательными веществами), послеродовые и родовые травмы черепа ребенка - Intrauterine infections during the course of pregnancy (toxoplasmosis, congenital syphilis , rubella, hormonal disorders), immuno-conflict of blood of the child and mother, drug addiction, alcoholism and other bad habits of the mother (causing fetal nutritional deficiencies), postpartum and birth traumas of the child's skull

, синдром Шерешевского-Тернера, синдром Клайнфелтера , синдром Рубинстайма-Тейби, различные типы мукополисахаридоза и пр.) - Specific hereditary metabolic disorders, various genetic syndromes and chromosomal pathologies ( Down syndrome , Shereshevsky-Turner syndrome, Klinefelter 's syndrome, Rubinstein-Teibi syndrome, various types of mucopolysaccharidosis, etc.)

, детские инфекционные заболевания, травмирование головы малыша в раннем детстве, асфиксия новорожденного и плода и пр.) - The most severe forms of oligophrenia develop due to the combined effect on the body of both endogenous and exogenous factors (congenital hydrocephalus , childhood infectious diseases, traumatization of the baby's head in early childhood, asphyxia of the newborn and fetus, etc.)

Degrees of oligophrenia

. The easiest degree of dementia is debility . Children with this deviation are most often able to complete primary school and are capable of independent living. In the morons prevails specifically - a descriptive type of thinking, the ability to abstract almost completely absent. Some morons, despite the low productivity of thinking and the delay in general mental development, are partially gifted, which can be manifested in excellent visual and mechanical memory, the ability in the mind to produce complex arithmetic operations, etc. The Debilov are divided into braked (torpid), vindictive, maliciously stubborn, sluggish - apathetic and excitable (eretichnyh)

. The average degree of oligophrenia is the degree of imbecility . Imbeciles are able to pronounce short phrases and understand the speech of others. Some patients can learn the simplest skills of self-service, perform elementary mathematical (counting) operations, and also master the simplest labor skills. Imbeciles adequately react to censure or praise, are very attached to their relatives, their emotions are more differentiated. The thinking of this group of patients is very primitive, they are suggestible, inert, totally devoid of initiative, when the situation changes, they are easily lost, they need constant care

, которая характеризуется практически полным отсутствием мышления, а также речи. The deepest degree of oligophrenia is idiocy , which is characterized by an almost total lack of thinking, as well as speech. Idiocy is characterized by unconscious activity. The emotional life of such people is limited to primitive reactions of displeasure and pleasure. Idiots are able to pronounce only individual sounds or words, are unable to understand the speech of their environment, can not distinguish relatives from outsiders. Such people are not able to eat on their own, they can not serve themselves elementary, they need constant care

Symptoms of Oligophrenia

In all patients with oligophrenia there are common signs of mental underdevelopment:

- Dementia manifests itself not only in the underdevelopment of the cognitive process, it covers the personality as a whole: intellect, thinking, will, emotions, motor skills, speech, attention, memory and perception suffer

- The leading role in the structure of mental defects belongs to the inability to generalize and the lack of abstract thinking (situational thinking, figurative, concrete). Vocabulary is characterized by poverty, the phrases are elementary and illiterate. Memory and attention are weakened, sometimes mechanical memory can be well developed (selective memorization of numbers, phone numbers, etc.). Patients are noted to reduce the level of initiative and motivation. With a delay, physical development also takes place

Diagnosis of oligophrenia in the first year of a child's life is based on a complex of symptoms of mental and physical developmental lag. The diagnosis of oligophrenia is established for children, if at the earliest age they are incapable of fixing a sight at one point, do not hold a head up to a year, do not sit, do not turn their heads to sound, do not walk or smile when addressing them. In children of the second year of life, oligophrenia manifests itself underdevelopment of motor skills and speech, and a lack of desire to cognize the environment. The child does not try to repeat the actions of adults and does not understand the addressed speech. In preschool children, an easy degree of oligophrenia is manifested in the inability to self-service, poor learning, the predominance of primitive emotions and in poorly developed speech

Treatment of oligophrenia

For the timely detection of various forms of oligophrenia in children, there is a uniform worldwide patronage system for controlling the mental and physical development of children from birth to school. Unfortunately, the treatment of this disease is possible only in the case of metabolic etiology of oligophrenia, in which the child is shown the appointment of medications for the correction of metabolism, and the quality of treatment directly depends on the susceptibility to this treatment of the child's body.

With the remaining forms of oligophrenia, it is possible to carry out only auxiliary therapy with nootropics, amino acids, vitamin complexes, drugs to reduce intracranial pressure and stimulate cerebral circulation.

To compensate for the oligophrenic defect, labor training, as well as medical and educational activities are of great importance. Along with the health authorities, in the social adaptation and rehabilitation of oligophrenics, an important role is played by auxiliary schools - boarding schools, workshops and vocational schools for the mentally retarded

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