Non-diabetes mellitus is a fairly rare endocrine disease due to the relative or absolute insufficiency of vasopressin (non-hippopophasic hormone) and is manifested by debilitating urination (polyuria) and severe thirst (polydipsia). Most often this disease is observed in young people of both sexes aged 17 - 25 years (but can occur at any age).
For reference: vasopressin is an antidiuretic hormone formed in the hypothalamus, accumulating in the pituitary gland and responsible for the balance of fluids in the human body (extracellular liquid part, blood, water, etc.)
Most diabetes insipidus develops as a result of pathological abnormalities of the pituitary gland provoked by malignant or benign metastatic tumors. Another possible cause of destructive processes in the pituitary gland are unsuccessfully performed surgical interventions on the brain (every fifth case of diabetes insipidus). Also, the reasons for the occurrence include: chronic and acute infectious diseases, trauma (surgical or accidental), tumors; Vascular lesions of the pituitary - hypothalamic system were recorded. In some cases, the cause of the establishment can not be established, as a result of which this form is allocated as idiopathic diabetes insipidus.
In addition to the acquired form in adults and congenital form in children, diabetes mellitus can be renal (nephrogenic), central and idiopathic
Sudden occurrence of copious and frequent urination, in which the daily amount of urine can fluctuate from three to fifteen liters (sometimes up to 40 liters per day) and strong thirst. There is a decrease in salivary discharge, dry skin, convulsions. There is a decrease in body weight, lack of appetite, increased fatigue and irritability, a violation of the proper functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. Children often have a lag in sexual and physical development. In men, there is a decrease in potency, and in women the menstrual cycle is disrupted. , сухость слизистых оболочек и кожных покровов, тошнота и рвота, сгущение крови, повышение общей температуры тела, коллапс, психические нарушения, тахикардия When the consumption of liquids is limited, dehydration symptoms develop: headache , dryness of mucous membranes and skin, nausea and vomiting, thickening of blood, increase in overall body temperature, collapse, mental disorders, tachycardia
Diagnosis of diabetes insipidus is established based on the patient's polydipsia, polyuria (there are no pathological changes in the urinary sediment with a relatively low density of urine); at a sample with dryness there is no increase in the relative density of urine
Treatment of diabetes insipidus is prescribed depending on the form of the disease. With central diabetes insipidus, the use of hormone replacement therapy for a synthetic analogue of vasopressin, desmopressin or adiuretin, is indicated (administered intranasally twice daily). In the event that patients have an insignificant urine output (less than four liters per day), they are recommended to make up for lost fluid.
In the nephrogenic (kidney) form of diabetes insipidus, perhaps the most effective method of treatment is the combination of antidiuretics with the restriction of daily intake of salt (less than 2 grams).
In addition to drug treatment, patients with diabetes insipidus should adhere to a diet that consists in limiting the consumption of salt and protein in their food, as well as the complete refusal to drink alcoholic beverages. And on the contrary, in large quantities should eat vegetables, fruits and dairy products. To quench your thirst is recommended the use of refrigerated compotes and fruit drinks.
Also, in the treatment of diabetes insipidus, some recipes of traditional medicine (herbage collections) have proved to be good, but they can only be an addition to medical treatment, after preliminary agreement with a doctor - an endocrinologist.
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