Anorexia nervosa is a nervous breakdown of food intended to reduce weight caused by vomiting or sustained by the patient's own intake of laxatives, as well as diuretics. The patients have a panic fear of weight gain and a wild fear of obesity. Patients with anorexia nervosa perceive their image in the mirror in a distorted way.
The behavior of patients with anorexia nervosa replicates the behavior of patients with bulimia nervosa . These two diseases combine long-term fasting, which leads to uncontrolled eating and the subsequent artificial disposal of food. Long hunger strikes lead anorexic nerves to exhaustion, cause metabolic and neuroendocrine disorders. Women with anorexia complain of amenorrhoea, men reduce libido. For severe anorexia nervosa, a lack of potassium, dehydration, a violation in the tissues of the body acid-base balance. The consequences of anorexia are pronounced endocrine, somatic, electrolyte changes that can lead to death if untreated. European countries are breaking records in terms of the number of people with anorexia nervosa. Since the second half of the last century, there has been a sharp increase in those with anorexia nervosa, which is associated with the demand for thin models and the idealization of fragile body shapes. Ill girls are more in percentage than men. Athletes runners are affected by this disease; youth, engaged in ballet, models, actresses, television broadcasters, teenagers. The diagnosis of anorexia nervosa is made with obvious loss of weight, persistent refusal of food, intake of laxatives, diuretics, passion for artificial vomiting
Causes of anorexia
- genetic predisposition
- psychological (family influence and intrapersonal conflicts)
- social (the influence of the environment)
And also the biological factor aggravating and promoting the development of anorexia nervosa, consisting in the deficiency of zinc and serotonin
Anorexia nervosa signs
- denial of anorexia problems
- a feeling of fullness in its absence
- a violation in eating (standing, crushing food into smaller portions)
- disturbance and sleep disorders
- fear of obesity
- Depressive manifestations
- unreasonable anger and heightened sense of resentment
- hobby for cooking, but at the same time refusal to participate in your own meal
- interest in various diets and vegetarianism
- refusal from celebrations of family, feasts of mass
- frequent and lengthy visits to the bathroom
- Strengthened physical exercise outside the home
Anorexia nervosa symptoms
- problems with the menstrual cycle
- cardiac arrhythmia
- muscle weakness and spasms
- low self-esteem
Stages of anorexia
, при которой превалируют угнетенные мысли о необходимости совершенствования в связи с мнимой полнотой. Dysmorphic , in which oppressed thoughts prevail about the need for improvement in connection with imaginary completeness. Characterized by restless behavior, depressed mood, self-examination in the mirror, the search for an ideal diet.
, возникающая на фоне длительного голодания. Anorectic , occurring against a background of prolonged fasting. Typically, weight loss to 20 percent and the desire for further weight loss. The behavior of the patient makes you think about your constant refusals to join the meal, as well as about excessive physical exertion. In a patient with anorexia, the volume of circulating fluid in the body decreases, leading to hypotension and bradycardia. The skin condition deteriorates, chilliness appears, the menstrual cycle in women stops and the sexual desire in men disappears. Develops adrenal insufficiency and there is a complete loss of appetite.
, характеризуется необратимостью дистрофии внутренних органов. Cachectic , characterized by the irreversibility of dystrophy of internal organs. This stage occurs one and a half years after the disease. Weight loss reaches half of the original, water-electrolyte balance is disrupted, the level of potassium decreases and the irreversibility of all body systems occurs, leading to a lethal outcome
How to prevent anorexia
This question bothers many people when they discover the signs and symptoms described above. It is necessary to pull yourself together and try to understand the causes of what is happening. Having found out the reason - we begin to eliminate it patiently, calmly, connecting if necessary qualified specialists.
Explain to an anorexic patient that the consequences of this disease are appalling. The patient does not want to listen to you - put an invisible log with known victims about anorexia
Effects of anorexia
- disorders of the cardiovascular system
- Hungry fainting and numerous bruises
- Various changes on the skin and nails
- diseases of the digestive tract, chronic constipation
- violations of the endocrine system
- Osteoporosis and frequent fractures of bones
- obsessive-compulsive disorder
How to treat anorexia? The concerned relatives of the sick person ask questions. It should be remembered that self-medication with hormonal drugs is very dangerous for health. Forced treatment, too, does not give positive results. Victims of anorexia should understand for themselves how important it is to stop this disease and begin treatment on time. All treatment for anorexia focuses on behavioral (weight gain), cognitive (correction of distorted perception of oneself as thick), family psychotherapy (correction of family relationships), and improvement of the somatic state.
Medications used in the treatment of anorexia nervosa:
- Cyproheptadine (promotes weight gain, acting as an antidepressant)
- chlorpromazan or olanzapine (to relax the excited state)
- fluoxetine (to reduce relapses in eating behavior)
It is important in the treatment of anorexia compliance with bed rest and therapeutic nutrition (a gradual increase in calories in the diets). Improvement of the patient's condition may alternate with relapses, and if the anorexic sufferer has progressive weakness and refusal of habitual activity is an indicator for hospitalization.
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