Lymphocytosis is a pathological condition characterized by an increased number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. They are a kind of white blood cells, which form the bone marrow, and are an integral part of immunity. Lymphocytes make up about 40% of all blood cells in the bloodstream and are able to recognize and destroy viruses, fungi, cancer cells, infection.
For correct evaluation of blood composition, it is necessary to take into account not only the absolute content of leukocytes, but also the percentage ratio of different species. There are five subtypes of white blood cells that fight against certain groups of the disease.
Relative lymphocytosis is characterized by the percentage of lymphocytes relative to the remaining cells that make up the blood. Its formation is associated with a slightly reduced or normal number of leukocytes. Relative lymphocytosis can be found more often than absolute lymphocytosis, which is characterized by an absolute increase in the number of lymphocytes.
Absolute lymphocytosis usually indicates the presence of hepatitis, infectious mononucleosis, endocrine system diseases, lymphosarcoma .
In children, the number of lymphocytes varies with age, but in adults the normal level should not exceed 2900 per liter of blood. Acute or chronic leukemia can manifest a malignant form of lymphocytosis - it is an independent manifestation of a lymphoproliferative disease.
Infectious lymphocytosis is caused by a lymphotropic virus and an acute viral infection is formed. The source of infection can be any person, even with the presence of an asymptomatic course of the disease, since this form is transmitted by airborne droplets. There are the following forms of infectious lymphocytosis: mixed; nervous; adenopathic; skin; arthralgic; influenza-like; respiratory; asthenic; asymptomatic.
Lymphocytosis in a child, regardless of age, is relative and absolute. The disease is formed due to an absolute increase in the number of lymphocytes in the presence of acute viral infectious diseases: rubella, chicken pox, measles , scarlet fever, viral hepatitis . Emotional stress, prolonged physical activity can also serve as a redistribution of immune cells.
Lymphocytosis in a child in the presence of a viral disease, the pathological process takes a relative form. Frequent occurrence of lymphocytosis in children is associated with the greatest susceptibility to various infectious diseases.
Also, this condition can occur with an overdose of narcotic analgesics, phenotin, levodopa. Poisoning by disulfide carbon, arsenic and lead, contribute to the development of lymphocytosis. However, the lymphocyte count in the blood will decrease with age, that is, the younger the child, the more lymphocytes are contained in his blood.
Lymphocytosis in adults is formed because of a variety of reasons:
- with blood transfusion or recovery, as well as large bleeding;
- when taking medications that contribute to a change in blood composition;
- with mental illness and nervous disorders;
- with a lack of vitamin B 12 in the body;
- when abusing harmful habits (tobacco smoking, alcoholism, drug addiction);
- with irregular eating or prolonged refusal of food;
- Absolute lymphocytosis occurs in the presence of viral hepatitis C, AIDS, which stimulate increased stimulation of lymphopoiesis;
- relative lymphocytosis occurs due to the presence of a massive purulent-inflammatory process.
The formation of lymphocytosis provokes the following diseases: infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus infection , lymphatic system diseases, Chagas disease, rheumatic diseases, hyperthyroidism , Addison's disease , splenomegaly.
An absolute increase in the level of lymphocytes, possibly because of:
- metastasizing malignant formation in the bone marrow, lymphocytic leukemia . An increase in the level of lymphocytes three times or more indicates a cancer;
- autoimmune disease. Cells of one's own organism attack tissues;
- Crohn's disease , in which ulcers are formed.
In the presence of lymphoblastic leukemia, white blood cells do not have time to mature and do not fulfill their function. The number of immature lymphocytes fills the internal organs, the circulatory system, resulting in anemia, various infections, bleeding.
There are cases when the level of lymphocytes is increased and there are no diseases at all. In such cases, specialists can indicate the presence of lymphocytosis only when the patient is fully diagnosed, as well as when all the necessary tests are taken.
Often, lymphocytosis is diagnosed when the patient complains of an infectious disease. The development of the infectious process provokes an increase in lymphocytes.
In the initial detection of the disease, this may indicate the presence of a malignant process. Increased lymph nodes, spleen and liver indicate the presence of reactive lymphocytosis.
But, as a rule, the symptoms completely depend on the reasons that caused the disease. Symptoms may not appear or be slight in relation to the disease that caused lymphocytosis. The manifestation of symptoms also depends on the body's immune system.
Lymphocytosis in adults can manifest itself in the form of various infections of the nasal cavity, mucous membranes of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, inflammatory process of the cerebral cortex. In the presence of AIDS or viral hepatitis, lymphocytosis will manifest a sharp decrease or increase in body temperature, which will be accompanied by chills, increased spleen, and severe exhaustion. The clinical picture can be changed and sometimes manifested by an abdominal symptom. Taking medications, neurasthenia, fasting, anemia often provoke lymphocytosis.
The most common symptoms of infectious lymphocytosis are enlarged and hyperemic tonsils. Body temperature can reach 40 ° C. Also, diarrhea , nausea and loss of appetite are characteristic of this disease. In some cases, nervous exhaustion, exhaustion and an increased number of lymphocytes in the bone marrow may occur. Hematologic symptoms may occur within two months.
The child's symptoms are pronounced in the presence of infectious lymphocytosis. There is lethargy, weakness, fever, minor damage to the respiratory tract. Perhaps the development of a respiratory form, which will be accompanied by a fever for three days.
With the cutaneous form of infectious lymphocytosis, there is a rash similar to scarlet fever, which disappears after three days. The formation of tracheobronchitis develops severe pneumonia.
Treatment of lymphocytosis will depend entirely on the cause that contributed to its development. A list of diseases capable of provoking lymphocytosis is large enough. It can also appear with an increase in temperature or the presence of a chronic disease.
The disease is not self-sufficient and only after the cause has been set, treatment will be prescribed for its elimination. As a rule, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and antiviral agents are prescribed. After curing the underlying disease, lymphocytes normalize.
In the presence of malignant neoplasms, chemotherapy is prescribed or bone marrow transplantation is performed. The patient is often isolated and assigned to bed rest. Since the occurrence of complications (hemorrhage, reduced blood coagulability) is not excluded.
Children are treated with sulfonamides and ACTH. In rare cases, Aureomycin may be prescribed. Treatment should be conducted in a timely manner in order to avoid serious consequences. In the case of pronounced symptoms, symptomatic therapy is carried out with the appointment of vitamins, sparing diet and bed rest. Desensitizing drugs and antibiotics are sometimes prescribed. If secondary infection has joined, the prescription of antibiotics is mandatory.
Lymphocytosis in adults and children can also be treated with folk remedies. For example, one of the most effective methods is the intake of tinctures from catarrhtus leaves. Part of the leaves of the catarrhtum and 200 grams of vodka. Ingredients should be mixed and tightly clogged in a vessel. You need to insist for a week, then drain. Then 10 drops are dissolved in water. This infusion is taken for 3 weeks.
Since there are no preventive measures to prevent this disease, all persons in contact with the patient should periodically take certain blood tests.
As a rule, lymphocytosis has a favorable outcome.