Leukocytosis is a process in which the cellular composition of the blood changes, and the level of leukocytes rises. Their activity in the peripheral blood increases due to the appearance of infectious agents. In many cases, leukocytosis is protective reaction and an important sign in the diagnosis of a variety of diseases.
In adults and children, the level of leukocytes differs. In adults, the number of white blood cells is normal at 9.0 × 10 / L, in children 32.0 × 10 / L, and at the age of 7 11.0 × 10 / L. Cellular and humoral immunity is formed with the help of leukocytes, due to which a protective function is formed. They are able to dissolve the damaged tissue and carry out the histological task, and in the embryonic period to destroy the bookmark.
Absolute leukocytosis is caused by increased production of leukocytes. Patients who are in agonial state, accompanied by agonal leukocytosis.
Local leukocytosis is accompanied by a redistribution of leukocytes in a certain area of the vascular bed.
Intensive muscular work is accompanied by myogenic leukocytosis.
When moving to a vertical position from the horizontal position, orthostatic leukocytosis will arise.
Transition of white blood cells from the depot to the bloodstream is accompanied by redistribution of leukocytosis.
When adrenaline is introduced into the body, postadrenaline leukocytosis occurs.
With a strong emotional shock, there is an emotionogenic leukocytosis.
Also in relation to leukocytosis, there can be a reverse change in blood - leukopenia . The total number of leukocytes decreases. Granulocyte forms are also significantly reduced, primarily neutrophils due to radioactive radiation, chemical poisoning, and viral infections. At the same time, the release of leukocytes from the foci into the bloodstream, slowed down, the elimination is accelerated.
The composition of leukocytes includes the following enzymes: proteases, diastases, lipases, peptidases, which are in a calm state. The size of leukocytes is from 7 to 20 μm. They perform their function beyond the boundaries of blood vessels, they need a vascular bed for the purpose of movement. They are also characterized by an amoeba-like movement, through which they manage to penetrate through the capillary endothelium, heading for the affected area. Negative chemotoxin is the reverse movement of leukocytes. Their average life expectancy can reach 20 years.
The main tasks of leukocytes are the formation of humoral and cellular immunity, the implementation of histological and morphogenic functions.
The causes of leukocytosis are diverse:
- The emergence of any acute infectious process: plague, ARVI, cholera, influenza provoke the disease, since immunocompetent cells begin to react;
- In case of chronic inflammatory disease of any organ. However, the manifestation of leukocytosis will be less pronounced due to the fact that the body gets used to, rather than struggles;
- In case of injured tissues, as blood cells will rush into the necessary place;
- When taking food, the level will be increased, as the leukocytes will flow into the blood circulation from the depot, and begin to accumulate in the submucous part of the intestine. In spite of the fact that the process is physiological, food can not be taken before blood donation, otherwise it can deceive the doctor;
- In the presence of autoimmune diseases, as the body constantly struggles. For this reason, an analysis should not be carried out if an obvious allergic reaction is present. There is an eosophilic leukocytosis, which is accompanied by accelerated formation or release into the blood of eosophils. As a rule, the disease is not observed in healthy people, however, it is quite common in vaccinations, Leffler's syndrome, scarlet fever, dermatoses, helminthic invasions, Quincke edema , lymphogranulomatosis, myeloid leukemia, bronchial asthma , eosophilic pulmonary infiltrates, pulmonary periarteritis;
- With physical and psychoemotional stresses, in which white blood cells also participate;
- When drugs arrive in the body, the blood cells react to them as foreign bodies and multiply intensively;
- In contrast to adults, leukocytosis often occurs in children, since the above factors should be taken into account that the organism in childhood reacts more often and faster to different effects. Running, moving games, physical activity provoke an increase in white blood cells. They perform the metabolic function of newborns, and their high level will be very alarming;
- During pregnancy, white blood cells protect the woman and child, so a high level is a physiological process. However, probably, the formation of basophilic leukocytosis, in which the formation of basophils increases. White blood cells also stimulate contractile uterine function and prevent infection;
- The formula of leukocytes in men is stable in the absence of employment by power sports, intensive muscular work. These factors are the main cause of high leukocytosis;
- Violated leukopoiesis in the bone marrow is not associated with physiological effects, but is a confirmation of the presence of the disease.
Physiological leukocytosis is caused by a redistribution in the vessels of different organs of an increased number of white cells. Usually occurs during pregnancy, childbirth, premenstrual period, food intake, cold and hot baths, physical work. Also during the day, smoking contributes to an elevated level of leukocytes.
The pathological appearance of leukocytosis is very dangerous and is associated with such diseases as pyelonephritis , pneumonia, meningitis , sepsis and many others. And also in connection with diseases that damage cells of the immune system and cause inflammation. Exceptions are diseases that occur with leukopenia (rubella, typhoid, viral hepatitis , measles , brucellosis , malaria in the acute phase). High leukocytosis testifies to the struggle of the organism, otherwise this will indicate an unfavorable outcome.
Also, the development of leukocytosis provokes the inflammatory processes of non-microbial etiology, various infarctions, which are based on aseptic inflammation, blood loss, burns, malignant formations. The only exception will be metastases in the bone marrow, as a result of which hematopoiesis is broken and leukopenia is formed. Also, uremia, diabetic coma and the distant spleen contribute to the development of the pathological form of the disease.
Leukocytosis by nature can be divided into exogenous and endogenous. The causes of its occurrence can be physical (the effect of ionizing radiation on the body), chemical (the lowered level of oxygen in the air, alcohol, the intake of drugs that stimulate cell proliferation), biological (elevated levels of leukopoiesis and histamine, elements of dead viruses, bacteria).
Short-term leukocytosis may occur during the release of leukocytes into the blood (stress, hypothermia). Reactive leukocytosis may disappear together with the cause of its formation.
In the presence of nonspecific ulcerative colitis, myxedema, chronic myeloid leukemia and pregnancy, basophilic leukocytosis is quite common, however, this is a rare clinical and hematological syndrome. In the presence of chronic myeloid leukemia, an elevated basophil level indicates unfavorable signs.
In the presence of pertussis , viral hepatitis, infectious mononucleosis, tuberculosis , sarcoidosis, syphilis and other specific infections, lymphocytic leukocytosis is detected. Its mechanism of action is completely unknown. The increased number of lymphocytes, which are determined by the leukocytogram, are untrue, and relative and are associated with leukopenia.
The monocytic leukocytosis will testify to the onset of a septic process. As a rule, this form is manifested in patients with tuberculosis, brucellosis, malaria, typhus, ovarian and breast cancer, sarcoidosis , infectious mononucleosis, systemic connective tissue disease, septic endocarditis .
An increased level of monocytes in patients with agranulocytosis at the stage of convalescence is observed. Stably elevated levels of monocytes are characteristic of monocytic and myelomonocytic leukemia. In the presence of agranulocytosis , an increase in monocytes will indicate the onset of bleeding regeneration.
Leukocytosis is not an independent disease and for this reason the symptoms indicate the diseases that contributed to its development. Children often have no symptoms and for this reason need constant monitoring of blood composition. This will allow to detect leukocytosis at an early stage of development. In adults, usually asymptomatic manifestations of the disease.
- lethargy, fatigue, weakness, malaise, which occurs without cause;
- increases sweating at night and increases body temperature;
- often formed bruises, bruises, there are spontaneous hemorrhages;
- dizziness , fainting;
- pain in the abdominal cavity, upper and lower extremities;
- breathing becomes difficult and dyspnea appears;
- the appetite decreases;
- impaired vision;
inexplicably reduces weight.
If more than two of the above symptoms are detected, you should not hesitate to contact a specialist and take a blood test.
As a rule, in the case of leukopenia (low leukocyte count), the disease is accompanied by pronounced symptoms. The body gradually begins to weaken, immunity decreases. As a result, the body is more vulnerable to various infectious diseases.
Signs indicating the spread of the infectious disease: weakness, increased body temperature, the pulse becomes more frequent, chills appear. Further, inflammatory processes in the oral cavity may occur, in the intestine appear ulcers, glands swell, spleen and tonsils will be enlarged in size. The presence of these or other symptoms will depend on what kind of leukocytes are missing. Leukocytosis affects the general condition of the patient. The launched form leads to a lethal outcome. Also, the risk of a malignant neoplasm increases twice.
Leukocytosis in children
Unfortunately, in children, leukocytosis occurs no less than in adults, and there are significant differences from leukocytosis, which is tolerated by adults. This is due to the fact that the immune system is poorly developed in childhood. The presence of a diagnosis is indicated by an elevated level of leukocytes. Leukocytosis in newborns is within the norm of 9-30x109 / l, and at the age of up to three years it is considered the norm to be 6-17x109 / l., And at the age of 10 years - 6-11x109 / l. With the delivery of blood deviation of the above standards will be evidence of the presence of the disease.
The smaller the age of the child, the greater the likelihood of leukocytosis. This is facilitated by increased physical exertion, stress, hereditary predisposition, improper diet, temperature changes and many other factors. However, all these factors provoke only a slight change in the body, and after a certain time all the indicators are normalized. Even the presence of influenza increases the number of white blood cells. However, if you start a timely treatment of acute respiratory viral infection, then within a few days the number of white blood cells will return to normal.
Often when a leukocytosis is detected, malignant formations, diseases of the cardiovascular system are revealed. Despite this, the disease itself does not pose a significant threat, as the child quickly changes the blood formula and the leukocytes can be easily normalized.
Newborns have a great predisposition to leukocytosis due to an inflammatory infectious process. Also high leukocytosis is evidence of the presence of neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases. However, one can find cases where the disease is considered normal physiological process.
Early detection of leukocytosis in childhood will allow to begin treatment at the initial stage, having reached the maximum effect. Otherwise, serious consequences may occur. The formation of the pathological form of leukocytosis can be provoked:
- childhood infectious diseases;
- inflammatory processes, accompanied by purulent foci;
- large-scale burns;
- Oncological diseases;
- great blood loss;
- diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Leukocytosis is not considered a disease. It is rather a criterion for assessing the inflammatory process.
Leukocytosis in pregnancy
Immune cells create reliable protection for the mother and the future child from various infections, viruses. If there is an elevated level of white blood cells - this is evidence of infection. The lowered level of leukocytes is evidence of a decrease in immunity. The presence of renal pathology will be evidenced by high leukocytosis in the vaginal smear and urine analysis.
The causes of leukocytosis during pregnancy can be as follows:
- the presence of asthma;
- the presence of an inflammatory process;
- the presence of an allergic reaction;
- large blood loss;
- infectious diseases;
- damaged tissues;
- malignant neoplasms;
- vaginal candidiasis;
- Strong emotional turmoil.
Pregnant women, becoming registered, necessarily donate blood for detecting the level of leukocytes. The presence of leukocytosis in this period is considered a physiological phenomenon, however, an elevated level (more than 20) will already indicate the presence of infection, usually the urinary tract (vaginitis, thrush , cystitis , colpitis ). The partner can also become a source of infection.
With increased leukocytosis, urine acquires a dark color, becomes cloudy with the deposition of a mucous loose sediment. Normally, the level of leukocytes is considered to be up to three units. In some cases, leukocytosis can develop for several hours, which is a strong threat to the life of the child.
Too high level of leukocytes is always a sign of the presence of a bacterial, viral infection, purulent process, internal bleeding. However, one must take into account that there is always a risk of developing hyperleukocytosis. The disease has a rapid development, sometimes in a matter of hours, which will progress.
Leukocytosis poses a threat to the woman and the fetus, up to congenital pathological, chronic diseases, can even provoke a miscarriage. The presence of leukocytosis in the smear will indicate an increased number of purulent cells. It is possible that there is no symptomatology, including discharge. The most common causes are:
- The presence of sexual infection most often causes leukocytosis. The following symptoms are possible: itching, discharge, redness of the external genitalia. The absence of sexual contact recently can not indicate that there is no infection.
- Presence of stones in the kidneys. Small stones passing the urinary tract injure him, causing inflammation.
- The presence of dysbiosis. If the bacteria are pathological or are present in large numbers, then there is a violation of the bacterial composition of the genito-urinary tract. Leukocytosis occurs as a result of inflammation.
- With erosion of the cervix and cystitis, leukocytosis is a concomitant phenomenon of inflammation in these organs. Pus in this case will flow into the vagina and will manifest in the smear.
Physiological leukocytosis can occur with: severe stress; reception of hot baths; 3 hours after eating; during the second trimester of pregnancy. Proceeding from this, when giving the analysis it is necessary that the future mother does not take food, be calm, do not exercise and do not feel fatigue, unrest.
Neurophilic leukocytosis is accompanied by increased formation and release of neutrophils into the blood, in which an increased number of leukocytes is noted in the vascular bed. A similar condition can be observed in acute infections, chronic inflammation, blood diseases. In the presence of an acute infectious disease, there is an accelerated release of neutrophils from the bone marrow.
Also, the development of the disease due to prolonged treatment with medicines is not ruled out. If this form of the disease is present, it is necessary to limit oneself from physical exertion, stressful situations, overexcitation, since in this case neutrophils will only increase. There are two types of disease: pathological and physiological neutrophilic leukocytosis.
True is called neutrophilic leukocytosis, caused by many diseases. Its manifestation is more stable and the duration of the flow depends on the form, severity, nature and course of the disease. The presence in the peripheral blood of leukocytes of blast and young forms will testify to the severe course of the disease.
The presence of endo- and exogenous intoxications, bacterial and inflammatory diseases is most often accompanied by true neutrophilic leukocytosis. In case of intoxication, leukocytes manifest themselves as toxic granularity.
There are the following types of neutrophilic leukocytosis:
- regenerative, in which different forms of granulocyte leukocytes, which are released into metamyelocyte blood flow, proportionately increase;
- degenerative, in which there is an increased content of rod-nuclear cells with dystrophic changes in cells, which are characterized by a decrease in the number of segment-nuclear leukocytes. Also, the disease can occur in patients suffering from oxygen starvation, with significant blood loss, in the presence of acute hemolysis.
In the diagnosis of leukocytosis, a blood test is first done to accurately determine the number of leukocytes, as well as to identify the causes that caused this condition. In some cases, a smear of peripheral blood is taken and a bone marrow biopsy is performed. For the correct selection of treatment specialist performs a full diagnosis.
In the case of a lowered level of leukocytes, a laboratory blood test should be performed three times. It is necessary not only to know the total number of leukocytes, but to know the exact number of each species individually. The leukocyte formula is calculated.
Treatment of leukocytosis is based on the patient's symptoms and anamnesis.
Leukocytosis in newborns includes the treatment of a major infectious disease with the appointment of antibiotics. Although there are cases when the children's body begins to respond to treatment, reducing the symptoms, thus, to return the white blood cells to normal parameters is slightly more difficult. In case of a cold, it is necessary to start treatment of this disease in a timely manner, and the leukocytes are normalized independently after a certain time.
It is possible simultaneously with competent medicamental treatment to treat leukocytosis with folk remedies. The most effective method is a decoction of berries of cranberries and its leaves. For example, one spoonful of berries and leaves is poured with boiling water and boiled for 15 minutes. Then the resulting broth must be filtered. It is recommended to drink no more than three times a day. You can also brew the birch buds white, for 30 minutes per glass of water, one tablespoon. The broth is taken no more than four times a day. Decoction of berries of strawberries and leaves should be poured with boiling water and cook for no more than 5 minutes. All broths have a positive effect on the general state of leukocytosis.
The method of treatment of leukocytosis completely depends on the disease that accompanied its occurrence. The course of drug therapy will be appointed after a fully-fledged diagnosis. The prescribed antibiotics are aimed at curing and preventing the infection, as well as to prevent the development of sepsis. To reduce or eliminate the inflammatory process, steroids are prescribed that reduce the level of leukocytes. In order to reduce the acid level in the urine, antacids are prescribed. In the case of an allergic reaction, prescription of antihistamine medications is possible.
In rare cases, excess leukocytes are recovered with leukapheresis. The leukocyte concentrate that was obtained as a result of the procedure, the doctors either will be delivered to the donor center, or they will be poured back to the patient. Also, drugs aimed at preventing the destruction of tissues, which leukocytosis provokes, can be prescribed.
If leucocytosis is detected during pregnancy, specialists prescribe treatment aimed at eliminating the cause of its occurrence. If there is an infectious disease and treatment failure is already prescribed drugs, antibiotics will be prescribed corresponding to the duration of pregnancy without harm to the child. Drugs are selected for each woman individually, given the sensitivity of the pathogen to the drugs. If the causative agent could not be determined, the treatment would not yield any results. In the case of proper treatment and accurately implemented recommendations, a woman will be able to protect not only herself, but also the child. In this case, the use of national resources is categorically prohibited.
It must also be taken into account that the rejection of medications during pregnancy can provoke prolonged inflammatory processes that will lead to serious consequences. The disease, which will progress in the body of a future mother, can interrupt pregnancy or create complications. It is for this reason that treatment of leukocytosis in pregnant women is extremely important.
An important stage in the treatment process is proper individual nutrition. In the case of a lowered level of leukocytes, food should be enriched with products that stimulate the production of hemoglobin. It is best to eat foods fortified with vitamin B9, legumes, and drink milk. Also, you should limit the use of meat products, completely eliminating the kidneys and liver.