Treatment of allergies
The best method of treating allergies is to find out the allergen-provoking allergic reaction and further avoid contact with it. In some cases, this problem is solved quite easily, and in some there is not. For example, if there is sneezing, lachrymation and runny nose every year in a strictly defined period of the year (most often late spring, summer and early autumn), it is worth talking about seasonal allergies, which are unlikely to be avoided, as pollen penetrates everywhere. But if the same symptomatology is observed every time a person is near a cat, avoiding contact with these animals, it will be possible to completely solve this problem.
Treatment of allergies in children is prohibited to be performed with the help of local nasal anticongestants produced in the form of inhalations, sprays and drops, which are often recommended as therapeutic drugs for colds due to nasal congestion. Due to the fact that the allergy is a long-lasting condition that can be troubling for many years, the use of these local decongestants for more than a few days usually leads after the cessation of drug treatment to an even greater nasal congestion, and sometimes irreversible damage to the mucous membranes of the nose. In case of confidence in the allergic nature of rhinitis, non-prescription vacation sprays are strictly forbidden, since their uncontrolled use almost always ends in the fact that without these medications alone, it will not be possible to breathe through your nose
Methods of treatment of allergy
• Antihistamines. The most effective means used to treat allergies, to date are antihistamines. However, you should know that from a sufficiently wide range of products, one-component preparations with only one antihistamine should be given preference, which will minimize the possibility of side effects.
The main side effect of antihistamines is drowsiness. In the event that after taking the prescribed antihistamine drug develops drowsiness, work related to the management of high-risk mechanisms should be avoided. Even if drowsiness does not occur, antihistamines still slow the usual reaction severity. The degree of drowsiness caused by each specific antihistamine drug depends directly on the type of agent used and the individual characteristics of the patient. Least drowsiness is caused by the following over-the-counter drugs classified as effective and safe antihistamines: Clemastin (Tavegil), Pheniramine maleate, Brompheniramine maleate and Chlorpheniramine maleate. But a significant drowsiness is caused by such drugs: Doxylamine succinate and Diphenhydramine hydrochloride.
After the appearance of non-sedative antihistamines Terfenadine and Astemizol, older drugs began to be prescribed much less frequently, but unlike new ones, they had a side effect only one, whereas the drugs of the new generation had a significant increase. In addition to drowsiness, antihistamines have such a side effect as dryness in the throat, nose and mouth. The decrease in appetite, dizziness , blurred vision, nausea, upset stomach, loss of coordination, headache and lowering of blood pressure are less common. Elderly people with hypertrophied prostate often have difficulty urinating. Antihistamines in children can cause insomnia, anxiety and nervousness.
Treatment of allergy with antihistamines should first of all begin with such available one-component preparations as Brompheniramine maleate and Chlorpheniramine maleate. If there is difficulty urinating due to hypertrophied prostate, or if there are such diseases as bronchial asthma and glaucoma, it is strongly recommended not to use antihistamines without a doctor's prescription
• Nasal decongestants. Most antiallergic drugs contain such amphitamin-like substances as pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, or their analogs, which are usually found in most oral cold medications. When using these drugs for the treatment of an allergic reaction, such side effects as various cardiovascular disorders, insomnia and nervousness can develop. This is due to the fact that antiallergic drugs are most often used for a much longer period of time than the drugs used for colds.
In addition, it should be taken into account that nasal decongestants are not removed from the main allergic symptomatology in the form of perspiration in the throat, coughing, sneezing, watery and itchy eyes and a runny nose. These drugs take away only the stuffiness of the nose, which is not the main problem for allergy sufferers. Recommended nasal decongestants without the effect of drowsiness: Sudafed and Afrinol. However, it should be remembered that for allergies these drugs are not recommended
• Stabilizers of mast cells. The drugs of this group include the most commonly used drugs like Nedocromil and Cromolyn. The effect of these drugs is aimed at blocking the release of mediators from mast cells, and they are used only when antihistamines are little tolerant or ineffective. Ocular forms of these drugs: Pemirolast, Olopatadine, Lodoxamid
• Antileukotriene drugs. This type of medicinal product is used for therapeutic treatment of mild forms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and persistent bronchial asthma. For example, the drug Omalizumab is used to treat refractory allergic rhinitis or bronchial asthma of any severity
• Anti-inflammatory drugs. According to the indications, it is possible to administer orally or intranasally glucocorticoids. Oral glucocorticoids are used in such self-stopping severe systemic allergic disorders as contact dermatitis, seasonal asthma, and so forth.
• Immunotherapy. Treatment of allergy with the help of immunotherapy consists in forcing contact with a provoking allergen in constantly gradually increasing doses. Allergen is administered by injection or sullying. The task of immunotherapy is to induce tolerance to a provoking allergen. It is used in cases where drug therapy has not produced the desired results, and permanent or periodic contact with the allergen is prevented for certain reasons.
To achieve the best effect, injections are conducted on a strictly defined schedule monthly, and each time at the time of increasing the dose, the patient must always be under the watchful eye of the doctor during the first thirty minutes, since the development of anaphylaxis is not ruled out. Every four to six weeks throughout the year, the maximum dose should be given. Side effects during immunotherapy are most often associated with overdose, due to the negligent attitude of the attending physician when injecting the drug intravenously or intramuscularly. Symptoms of overdose are very variable and can manifest as almost invisible mild cough or sneezing, and in the form of generalized urticaria, severe asthma, or anaphylactic shock. In the period of active flowering, the dose of administered preparations of pollen is recommended to be reduced.