Labyrinthitis is an inflammatory lesion of the ear maze, with diffuse or limited lesions of the peripheral parts of the vestibular and auditory analyzers. Labirintitis in etiology is distinguished for hematogenous (measles, epidemic parotitis), tympanogenous (middle ear tuberculosis, chronic / acute otitis media) and meningogenic (meningitis of various origins). If the inner ear is damaged, fractures of the skull base bones, traumatic labyrinthitis is possible. , возможно развитие некротического лабиринтита In childhood, with scarlet fever and measles , it is possible to develop necrotic labyrinthitis
Inflammation of the labyrinth (three semicircular canals that control the balance) of the inner ear can be bacterial or viral. Bacterial labyrinthitis in most cases occurs due to meningitis or infectious inflammation of the middle ear and is a much more serious condition
In the initial stages of this disease, there is a so-called labyrinth attack - noise in the affected ear, dizziness, balance disorder, spontaneous nystagmus (rhythmic symmetrical spontaneous jerking of the eyeballs), hearing loss, nausea and vomiting. Equilibrium is observed both during movement and at rest, and dizziness can be very different in intensity. With a serous labyrinthite, the formation of exudate and edema in the soft parts of the labyrinth is possible (in the case of a favorable course of the disease, there is a gradual resorption of the exudate). With the development of purulent labyrinthitis, an increase in body temperature is possible. Limited labyrinthites can be both with festule (most often observed on the horizontal semicircular canal) of the labyrinth, and without it. With the development of diffusive-purulent labyrinthitis, complete absence of vestibular excitability and complete loss of hearing
The diagnosis is established on the basis of a clinical picture, anamnesis, otoscopy, the results of the study of the vestibular and cochlear apparatus and the radiographic examination of the temporal bone. Difficulties in diagnosing arise in cases where the labyrinthitis is accompanied by such serious complications as meningitis or abscess of the cerebellum. Also, this disease must be differentiated from Meniere's disease
In case of confirmation of the presence of this disease, urgent hospitalization of the patient with obligatory observance of bed rest is necessary. With limited purulent or serous labyrinthitis, conservative treatment is used, which consists in carrying out dehydration therapy and taking antibiotics. With a labyrinthitis with a fistulous symptom, in some cases, antibiotic therapy is ineffective, then general cough trepanation is indicated. With purulent and necrotic labyrinthitis, mandatory surgical intervention is indicated.
The prognosis for further life with uncomplicated maze is quite favorable. After the necrotic or diffusively purulent labyrinthitis has passed, complete loss of vestibular and auditory function of the affected ear is observed.
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