Skin conjunctival is the abnormal dryness of the skin due to hypo-secretion of the sebaceous glands, which is usually the cause of a sufficiently strong itch, and sometimes some infectious skin diseases. In some cases, xerosis is the initial stage of development of ichthyosis, but most often increased dryness of the skin is a sign of certain skin diseases and a symptom of the negative influence of various external factors on the skin (typical for people with fair skin).
Xerosis has the following characteristic features: roughness and dryness of the skin, peeling, inelasticity of affected areas, which are prone to cracking. Visually, the skin appears coarse, often covered with red spots, the pores are practically invisible. Often, a xerosis accompanies such an unpleasant manifestation as a skin itch . In this case, the causes of the observed itching are various chemicals, viruses, bacteria, which easily penetrate into the inner layers of the skin through the damaged epidermis. In most cases, the localization of xerosis occurs in places of tension or / and friction: fingers, knees, elbows.
Cornosis of the skin of the cause
Xerosis is the main symptomatic manifestation of the majority of dermatological diseases: almost all patients with atopic dermatitis are diagnosed; congenital dryness of the skin is observed in patients with seborrheic dermatitis , psoriasis , irritant eczema of the hands, follicular keratosis, ichthyosis , etc.
In addition, the inadequate care for skin, the effects of various chemical agents, due to their frequent use (poor-quality shower gel, soap, dish washing aids, etc.) can act as a catalyst for the development of xerosis. Often, the development of xerosis leads to various environmental characteristics: strong wind, humidity and air temperature.
In addition, the following predisposing factors and manifestations may lead to the development of xerosis:
- Continuous use of systemic and external glucocorticoid drugs
- Diseases of various systems and organs: chronic renal failure, cirrhosis, hepatitis, hypovitaminosis, hematologic and oncological diseases, intestinal malabsorption, hypothyroidism , etc.
- Disturbances in diet and sleep patterns, change of time zones
- Various aggressive environmental irritants (aerosols, tobacco smoke, etc.)
The leading mechanism for the development of xerosis is a decrease in the barrier function of the epidermis due to the incidence of lipids in the horny layer, which leads to an increased transepidermal loss of moisture.
Conjunctival skin symptoms
In its course this disease is divided into stages characterized by morpho-functional changes.
The first stage of the development of xerosis of the skin is characterized by functional disorders, which directly affect the protective properties of the skin. There are feelings of tightness, dryness, which, however, are not painful and permanent, quite easily compensated by applying moisturizing creams. In most cases, the feeling of tightness occurs with mimic movements, while the texture of the skin is unchanged, pronounced wrinkling is absent. In some cases, itching and sensitivity can be observed in the form of a unique response to aggressive external influences (wind, salt water, etc.). Significant morphological changes are absent.
The second stage of xerosis is characterized by the development of hyperkeratosis on the background of exfoliation. At this stage, the feeling of tightness and dryness becomes permanent and is no longer associated with mimic activity. These manifestations do not completely disappear even after the application of softening and moisturizing creams. On the skin begins to form a slight superficial wrinkling, it becomes visible small-plate peeling. The increased sensitivity of the skin to innocuous previously non-aggressive factors (conditioned air, water, etc.), periodically begin to occur reddening and itching of the skin . The increase in the sensitivity of the skin is directly related to the partial loss of barrier properties. The picture of morphological changes reflects hyperkeratosis, a violation of the integrity of the horny layer, thinning of the Malpighian layer.
The third stage of xerosis is characterized by hypotrophy of the dermis, skin peeling becomes pancreatic (large-plate). The wrinkles become even deeper, especially in zones of constant mimic activity (above the bridge of the nose, at the corners of the eyes, etc.). Deformation of the skin relief already affects the dermal layer. Dryness is not compensated for by moisturizing creams. The skin looks taut, becomes inelastic, stiff, rough to the touch, very easily cracked, followed by the formation of otreiform scales in these areas. There is an increased sensitivity accompanied by itching, inflammatory reactions and diffuse erythema . The pattern of morphological changes includes a decrease in the blood flow of the papillary layer of the dermis, thinning of the dermis and epidermis, cracks in the stratum corneum, hyperkeratosis .
The fourth stage of the course of the xerosis is characterized by atrophy of the dermis and epidermis. Observed pronounced trophic changes in the skin, sometimes before the formation of trophic ulcers. Histological and clinical pictures are similar to those that are observed in the process of natural aging.
The conjunctival skin of children in its symptoms and developmental causes is no different from that of adults.
Treatment of xerosis of the skin directly depends on the causes that caused it and, first of all, is directed at their elimination. Due to the fact that the xerosis is a systemic process, the following general recommendations should be adhered to: taking a balanced food rich in vegetables and fruits, drinking enough, stopping alcohol intake, stopping smoking, excluding prolonged exposure to the open sun, applying special emollients, regular physical exercises.
In addition to compliance with the general recommendations described above, which are relevant for almost all skin diseases accompanied by xerosis, the crucial aspect is the conduct of external therapy. However, one important condition must be met: all softening and moisturizing agents applied to dry skin should be similar in composition to the physiological lipids of healthy skin.
In addition, moisturizing emollients should fully meet the following criteria: hypoallergenicity, excellent tolerability, high degree of safety, appropriate age group. The effectiveness of moisturizing emollients directly depends on skin pH and dosage. The special importance of the application of softening moisturizers in combination with anti-inflammatory (local) drugs is given with the development of xerosis against atopic dermatitis. It is the complex treatment of xerosis that significantly reduces all symptomatic manifestations of this disease. Also, this treatment is more effective than common monotherapy with anti-inflammatory drugs.
Each medication is selected individually by a dermatologist, so we will not give the names of drugs in avoiding self-medication, however, we will describe the basic rules for caring for problem skin below, The prescribed anti-inflammatory drug should be applied only after certain manipulations.
Rules of care for atopic skin:
- Daily thorough cleansing of the skin using a special cream by means of a shower (without soap)
- Immediately after the skin gets wet after the shower, it is necessary to apply the moisturizer prescribed by the doctor depending on the current state of the skin. For the purpose of moisturizing the skin of the face, hydration cream is usually used. Moistening of the folds and extremities is carried out with the help of lipid-enriched ointments. Atopic dermatitis in the acute stage, emulsions and / or creams are applied, and lipid-enriched ointments are in remission
To successfully treat and prevent the development of relapses of xerosis, a number of preventive measures must be followed. To all people who periodically have signs of dry skin, the following rules should be adhered to:
- Quality sleep. A healthy and high-grade sleep perfectly promotes the regeneration of skin cells
- Observance of sufficient water regime. To maintain skin hydration and maintain a water balance a day, drink at least two liters of water
- Active way of life and playing sports. Light surface massage and moderate exercise significantly improve blood circulation, so that the skin cells are saturated with nutrients and oxygen
- Refusal from drinking and smoking
- Elimination of large temperature changes, overcooling or overheating
- Diet with a decrease in intake or total exclusion of caffeinated products, sugar, fried foods. At the same time, increase the consumption of fruits, vegetables, nuts.