Urticaria is a skin disease of allergic origin very similar to a nettle rash, which was also called nettle fever. The disease worries the patient with itchy, raised light red blisters. The disease itself is either an independent allergic reaction to an irritant or a manifestation of almost any disease.
The disease appears due to the acute inflammatory edema of the connective tissue of the papillary layer of the skin. A nettle rash likes to combine with Quincke's allergic swelling. At least once in a lifetime, every third person encountered this disease in life. In the structure of diseases of allergic origin, K. is immediately behind bronchial asthma. The most common susceptible to allergic rash people from 20 to 60 years of age (mostly women)
Hives - Causes
The causes of the occurrence lie in the allergic reaction of the body to stimuli, and fungal or bacterial allergens, insect bites may also provoke them. Violation of the function of the liver, metabolism, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys can also cause the appearance of the disease. Often, chronic K. may appear after prolonged cold, heat, sunlight, pressure, viral diseases, antibiotics, aspirin and other medications taken. Currently, the diagnosis and treatment of allergies is a serious problem, because all causes of hives are not fully understood. And establishing the root cause of allergic rash is the key to successful and effective treatment
The main symptom of hives is skin blisters on the body. In appearance, urticaria resembles a red trail, like after an insect bite or a burn left by the nettle. The main symptom of the disease is a rash. Rashes are symmetrical, asymmetrical, chaotic. They are plural, single, small, large. Elements of the rash are able to arise and migrate to any places of the skin. Unpleasant incessant itching bothers at the site of the rash. For the disease, the reversibility of the elements is characteristic and after the arrest of the attack the skin covers return to their original state
Urticaria - forms
From the duration of the disease and symptoms, the following forms are distinguished: acute, chronic, recurrent.
Acute K. is characterized by a duration of several hours to two weeks. It arises because of an allergic reaction to drugs, food, infections, and insect bites.
Chronic K. occurs with various pathologies and is often combined with Quinck's edema for up to several months. The disease is associated with impaired kidney function, liver, gastrointestinal tract, foci of chronic infection, toxicosis of pregnant women, disruption of malignant tumors. The misconception is that with Quinck's swelling, only the face and throat are affected. This swelling can appear on the feet, hands, and also other parts of the body.
Recurrent K. is characterized by repeated occurrence of urticaria rash.
Urticaria is not an infectious disease and can not be transmitted from one person to another. With a fast-paced episode of illness, patients often do not seek help from doctors.
According to statistics, acute urticaria is more common in children, as well as adolescents, but chronic K. occurs often in adults and mostly in women. The disease can be hereditary in nature and thus transmitted. Acute K. can go into chronic form, but not always, so do not rush to panic. Many patients with chronic K. recover in the first six months.
Is hives dangerous? This is a myth that is greatly exaggerated. This is not a fatal disease and only the swelling of the throat, as well as anaphylactic reactions require attentive treatment. Independently, the disease also can disappear within 6 weeks to 12 months
Causes of acute urticaria
Acute hives are by nature allergic and very hypersensitive due to an allergen, but despite this it is able to pass by itself.
Frequent allergens of acute cancer are drugs (penicillin, sulfonylamides), non-steroid drugs (aspirin), diuretics; food products (eggs, peanuts, seafood, nuts, fish); insect bites; contact with allergens (latex, saliva of animals, plants); application of radiopaque substances; acute viral infections, hormonal disorders, rheumatic diseases
Causes of chronic urticaria
In adults, the cause of chronic K. is still difficult to identify and often of its origin is an autoimmune nature (a malfunction of the immune system), but in children chronic urticaria is detected much more often
Types of urticaria
Allocate spontaneous and physical (mechanical) K.
Physical (mechanical) urticaria is associated with physical factors and mechanical skin irritations. Depending on these factors, dermograph urticaria, urticaria from pressure, solar, aqueous, cholinergic, thermal, cold, contact, papular, vibrational, adrenergic K are distinguished.
Dermographic urticaria is one of the forms of physical (mechanical) K. It is characterized by the appearance of blisters due to friction or irritation on the skin with blunt objects, clothing.
Solar urticaria appears due to exposure to the skin of ultraviolet light - sunlight.
Water (aquatic) urticaria appears from contact with water at any temperature. On the skin there are blisters, swelling, itching.
Cholinergic urticaria occurs due to stimulation of sweating, as well as increased body temperature due to stress factors, physical activity, hot bath or stuffy room. The urticaria pattern acquires point blisters that spread over the larger surface of the skin, often accompanied by Quincke's swelling.
Thermal urticaria occurs due to direct contact of the diseased person with a warm or hot object.
Cold urticaria occurs from skin contact with a cold object, as well as staying in cold air or drinking cold drinks, food.
Papular hives occur because of insect bites (bed bugs, fleas, mosquitoes). The name of urticaria was due to a rash of "papules" (small skin nodules).
Adrenergic urticaria - arising from stress, a very rare disease that is characterized by a white rim around the blister without skin itching.
Chronic idiopathic urticaria is characterized by periodic exacerbations (mainly in women), but never identified cause.
Pigment K. and mastocytosis are classified as diseases characterized by the accumulation of mast cells in tissues, organs.
Nervous (psychogenic) urticaria occurs due to stress and nervous experiences. Food urticaria is a hives invented by patients associated with the use of certain foods. Officially, there is no such urticaria, but if a person is disturbed by diseases of the intestines, kidneys, urticaria provoke toxins that were in food and did not leave the body
Diagnostics of urticaria
Diagnosis is carried out by an allergist-immunologist and finally a diagnosis is made after examination of the patient. Assumption of allergic K. recommended skin tests, the definition of antibodies of blood.
There are a number of diseases very similar to urticaria: urticarial vasculitis, mastocytosis, atopic dermatitis , erythema multiforme, contact dermatitis, scabies, anaphylactoid purpura
Hives - treatment
How to cure hives in a short time? Unfortunately, there is no quick radical remedy for getting rid of this disease.
The treatment of urticaria in adults is fundamentally different from the treatment of urticaria in children.
The main methods of treatment in adults are antihistamines, immunomodulators.
Antihistamines are drugs for treatment of both acute and chronic K. But immunomodulators (prednisolone or cyclosporine) are recommended for patients with chronic K.
After examining the patient, the doctor prescribes diagnostic tests, fasting for three to five days with intake from 2 liters of water, daily cleansing enemas, shower, and easy physical exercises are recommended. If there is a positive effect, then the rashes decrease and stop. Such dynamics are characteristic for allergic K. If the signs remain, and also progress, then this indicates a pseudoallergic K.
Patients with allergic cancer on the background of a diet begin to conduct provocative tests with the introduction of suspected food allergens. Special tests have been developed that allow to differentiate the allergic, as well as pseudoallergic, with a high probability.
Treatment of acute urticaria
Is it possible to cure hives? In the treatment of acute C. it is difficult to combine it with Quinck's edema. If the rash is insignificant, then it is possible to limit oneself to antihistamine drugs of the second generation (claritin, loratidine, fenistil, dimetendene, etc.) Dosage 1 tablet 1 time per day, if necessary, increase the dose. When the disease is aggravated with Quincke's edema, a group of hormones of the adrenal cortex (GCS) is administered in the form of tablets, as well as injections at the physician's discretion. The dose, as well as the duration of the use of drugs, is prescribed by a dermatologist or an allergist
Treatment of chronic urticaria
How to cure chronic urticaria? In the treatment of chronic K. identify primary disease. The main drugs are second-generation antihistamines (claritin, loratidine, fenistil, dimethendene, etc.) in usual dosage or increased at the doctor's discretion. The duration of treatment depends on the continuation of the symptoms of the disease
Diet for hives
It is erroneous to prescribe a hypoallergenic standard diet in all cases of rash. It is advisable to exclude from a diet acute acute K. those products which, according to the results of the research, cause an allergic rash. Patients with acute and chronic edema are advised not to drink alcohol
Nutrition for hives
What can you eat with hives? It shows strict adherence to the diet, in which the restriction of fats, sugar, liquid, salt, exclusion of chocolate, eggs, citrus, smoked products, spicy, smoking and alcohol refusal, as well as contact with poisons of hepatropic origin
Treatment of urticaria in the home
Independently to start to treat an allergic rash it is recommended only after survey by the doctor as there is a probability of danger of an angioootec in the field of a throat. Recommended to facilitate the condition of cleansing enema, a plentiful drink.
After examining the doctor and coordinated with the treatment, you yourself can take second-generation antihistamines (claritin, loratidine, fenistil, dimetendene). Be sure to show your doctor after the removal of the symptoms of the disease and to agree on further actions of treatment and prevention of rash.
You can wash with hives and even recommended a warm shower, a little exercise. After relieving the exacerbation of the underlying disease, you should repeat every four months a four-week treatment with enzyme preparations, hepatoprotectors, cholagogues, and also recommend annual treatment in sanatoriums
Urticaria in children - treatment
Symptoms of urticaria in children practically do not differ from adults, but in expressing their emotions, children become lethargic, capricious, restless.
Treatment of child K. occurs with the weight of the child, so the doctor picks up children's doses of antihistamines
Hives in pregnant women - treatment
Hives in pregnant women take place in different ways, and therefore treatment requires an individual approach. In all cases, the benefit or possible harm to the baby is weighed. The safest drug for pregnant women is Loratadin.