Urticaria in adults
Hives troubles at least once in the life of every third adult. The disease resembles, at first sight, burns with nettles, which is characterized by a rash in the form of red blisters on the body. In medicine, this disease is called polyethyological dermatosis and has several forms: acute, chronic recurrent, chronic persistent papular and acute with the development of Quincke's edema. Allergic rash is divided into two groups: child and adult.
Urticaria in a child is combined with allergic dermatitis or with childhood pruritus. Urticaria in adults is more serious and sometimes turns into an independent chronic disease
Hives in Adults - Causes
The cause of the disease is toxic-allergic dermatitis, therefore in most cases it is difficult to find out the true causes of hives. Other provoking factors are heredity, food allergy , gastrointestinal tract diseases, focal infection, allergy to medications.
Often, the skin inflammatory process occurs due to a malfunction of the body's immunity. And in general, the appearance of urticaria in adults is due to the sensitivity of the immune system to an increased content of biologically active components. In connection with this, there is an increase in the volume of histamine in the blood serum, and the capacity of the organism for inactivation decreases.
In patients with urticaria, an increased content of urocaninase enzyme was found. This enzyme is responsible for the ability to inhibit the activity of histidine decarboxylase, while converting the acid histidine into histamine. As a result, there is an overabundance of histamine, and it in turn exerts a toxic reaction and dilates the capillaries.
In this process, bradykinin and serotonin, which enhance the action of histamine, also participate. Great role in the occurrence of hives violations of the vegetative and nervous system. Therefore, the doctor before the beginning of treatment in detail studies the pathogenesis of the patient, to take into account the genetic characteristics of the atopic nature. The development of urticaria in adults is accompanied by anaphylactoid reactions.
Let's sum up what causes urticaria in adults: medicines, poison of insects, washing preparations, food, pollen of plants, biting of Hymenoptera, house dust, pets, mold, blood transfusion, frost, pressure, sun, nettle burns, unstable psychological state of a person , infectious, bacterial disease, kidney disease , hepatic, serum disease, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine disease , lupus erythematosus, collagenosis, rheumatoid arthritis, morphine, sodium thiopental, codeine, ntibiotiki, ibuprofen, ACE inhibitors, diclofenac, procaine, lidocaine, neoplasms, hypothyroidism
Symptoms of hives in adults
Urticaria occurs very quickly in the form of blisters scattered throughout the body from the hands to the lower limbs. Reminds a rash of insect bites or a trace left by the nettle. The rash is characterized by an unpleasant burning sensation, and also severe itching. Allergic rash has a symmetrical character and can acquire a giant size.
A distinctive feature of all these rashes lies in the ability to arrest after an attack and return to the former skin condition. On the skin itself there are no traces, scarring or pigmentation does not remain
Types of urticaria
Urticaria in adults there are several types and types. The main types: chronic urticaria, acute urticaria, acute urticaria in combination with edema Quincke, chronic persistent papular.
Chronic urticaria has a much smaller amount of rashes, blisters that are less edematous and different both in size and color from pale pink to intense pink. The course of the disease lasts for several years, and the stages of remission and exacerbation alternate with different intervals.
At the time of an attack, the headache may increase, the body temperature rises, weakness appears, pressure rises, arthralgia worsens. During the period of exacerbation, insomnia, provoked by a disorder of the nervous system, may occur, and in the blood test there will be changes from the platelets and eosinophils.
Acute urticaria in adults occurs an hour after contact with the allergen and the rash appears every time after the encounter with the stimulus, and the duration of the rashes is up to several weeks. From acute urticaria suffer mainly elderly people.
Quincke's edema in combination with acute urticaria is a serious disease in adults. The disease is characterized by angioedema, as well as subcutaneous adipose tissue, mucous membranes.
Quincke's edema is combined with impaired vision, the appearance of blisters of white, pink and accompanied by unpleasant sensations of itching. Aggravation can disappear after a short period of time and repeat again. If there is swelling of the larynx and pharynx, care must be taken to avoid asphyxia.
Chronic persistent papular urticaria occurs in the case of persistent urticaria rashes and is able to attach to the edema of cellular polymorphic infiltration, consisting of lymphocytes. Places of extension of limbs are filled with blisters, where in due course nodules of erythematous coloring of very dense consistence will appear. This disease is attributed to one of the varieties of prurigo.
Cold urticaria in adults occurs in the winter after a sufficiently long time in the air. Skin is covered with a rash due to accumulated cryoglobulins-antibodies, as well as cold agglutinins.
Solar urticaria in adults is a form of photodermatosis. People with kidney and liver diseases suffer from this disease, as well as with bright sensitivity to sunlight. After a stay in the sun, rashes occur on those parts of the body where the sun's rays have been.
Thermal urticaria in adults occurs often after a shower, taking a hot bath, going to a sauna or a sauna and having elevated blisters.
Physical urticaria in adults occurs after physical exertion and has such manifestations as swelling of the vessels, difficulty wheezing and low blood pressure.
Dermographic urticaria in adults occurs as a result of mechanical irritation, as well as severe compression. Strongly clamping shoes, elastic stockings, belt pressure and other items can cause dermografic urticaria. Symptoms occur immediately, and in form resemble reddened blisters that are troubled by severe itching and burning, but such symptoms can quickly disappear.
Aquatic (water) urticaria is a type of disease in which an adult from water has slight cones or an unpleasant sensation of itching of the rash.
Contact urticaria appears from contacts with skin irritants, such as latex, etc. Externally, the skin shows blisters that are accompanied by burning and itching, in severe cases it reaches anaphylactic shock
Treatment of urticaria in adults
Treatment of urticaria is aimed at identifying an allergen-stimulus, which provokes allergies. Often, this provocateur is a medicine (aspirin, diuretics, penicillin, etc.). If you notice that after taking medications, there is itching, restless skin condition, then you need to give up these medications and pick up another drug.
If urticaria occurred after eating, then it is necessary to remove this irritating allergen from food by the elimination method. Often hives in adults are from peanuts, fish, beer, eggs, milk, chocolate, wine, citrus.
If the disease provokes ultraviolet rays, you need to pick up sunscreen, and if the rash has already occurred, then use Celestoderm cream, which will relieve itching, inflammation.
In acute forms of allergies, when allergens are cold, wool, insect bites, antiallergic drugs help: Tavegil, Suprastin, Pipolphen.
Chronic allergy is treated with a prolonged intake of antihistamines, which are changed every 4 weeks. The skin is lubricated with antipruritic ointments and gels, for example (Psilo-balm, Argosulfan, Sulfargin, Dermazin) or apply lotion (Belosalik). And for rapid removal from the body of the allergen used diuretic, as well as laxatives.
The main thing to remember is that with persistent proper treatment there will be good results and the allergy will recede.