Conjunctivitis. Types and methods of treatment

Конъюнктивит Conjunctivitis is a common inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of the eye. The second name of conjunctivitis is "rabbit eyes". Such a name is received for the redness of the eyelids. How many unpleasant moments brings us conjunctivitis! This disease can be caused by both an allergic and bacterial reaction or a viral infection. Infectious conjunctivitis is a very dangerous and contagious disease, and there is no allergic conjunctivitis. Therefore, it is better not to delay the medical examination, but to find out the cause of the disease and start treatment

Causes

- Flower dust, mote, foreign bodies

- Allergens - bacteria

- Medications

- Cosmetical tools

- Viruses

- Household chemical goods

- Chemicals in enterprises

- Ionizing radiation

- Rubbing the eyes with dirty hands

Symptoms

- Burning sensation

- Itching and redness in the eyes

- Sensation of sand in the eyes

- Photophobia

- Swelling of the eyes

- Mucous discharge

Конъюнктивит 1

Types of conjunctivitis

Distinguish between conjunctivitis chronic nonspecific catarrhal, acute nonspecific catarrhal, diplobacillary (angular), diphtheria, adenovirus, herpetic, paratrahoma

, мейбомеит), нарушением оттока слезной жидкости, заболеванием носа и придаточных пазух. Chronic nonspecific catarrhal conjunctivitis is caused by smoke, dust, chemicals, eating and metabolic disorders, development of hypovitaminosis, eyelid disease ( blepharitis , meibomeitis), impairment of tear drain, nasal and sinus disease. As a result, microorganisms - saprophytes are activated. Incorrect treatment of acute conjunctivitis can also cause chronic conjunctivitis

характерно слезотечение, светобоязнь, чувство жжения, тяжести в глазах, обильное слизисто-гнойное отделяемое, склеивание ресниц за ночь. For acute nonspecific catarrhal conjunctivitis is characterized by tearing, photophobia, burning sensation, heaviness in the eyes, profuse mucopurulent discharge, gluing eyelashes overnight. This infection develops as a result of coccal flora, and this is staphylococcus or streptococcus. The disease in a short time can cover two eyes

характеризуется хроническим и подострым течением с тягучим слизистым отделяемым. Diplobacillary (angular) conjunctivitis is characterized by a chronic and subacute course with a viscous mucous discharge. Inflammation is localized at the inner and outer corner of the eyes. The eyelid blushes and painful cracks form, the conjunctiva friable

характеризуется инфицированием конъюнктивы с верхних дыхательных путей. Diphtheria conjunctivitis is characterized by infection of the conjunctiva from the upper respiratory tract. In most cases children of preschool age get sick. Symptomatology: edema, tenderness of the eyelids, discharge is unclear-bloody, the conjunctiva is covered with a dirty-gray coating, granulations are formed. , слабость, повышение температуры тела, увеличение и болезненность лимфатических узлов There are symptoms characteristic of diphtheria, these are: headache , weakness, fever, an increase and soreness of the lymph nodes

– когда вирус передается контактным либо воздушно-капельным путем. Adenoviral conjunctivitis - when the virus is transmitted by contact or airborne droplets. The disease is always acute. The body temperature rises, the headache increases, the lymph nodes increase. At first one eye falls ill, and on the second day the second one. There is lacrimation, scanty discharge, photophobia, swelling of the skin of the eyelids

Herpetic conjunctivitis. The causative agent of this conjunctivitis is the herpes simplex virus. Transmission of the virus occurs by airborne droplets. Herpes simplex virus, having got into the body, remains in it throughout life and at the same time causes recurrence of the disease. Conjunctivitis has three clinical forms: follicular, catarrhal and vesicular-ulcerative. For the follicular form is characterized by a dull prolonged course, the absence of microflora, the appearance of herpes vesicles on the wings of the nose and skin of the eyelids. The catarrhal form proceeds acutely, and the vesicular-ulcerative form is characterized by the development in the tissue of the conjunctiva follicles with subsequent scarring

– конъюнктивит с включениями, для которого характерно отек век, гнойное отделяемое, фолликулы, инфильтрация и гиперемия конъюнктивы, изменения роговицы. Paratrahoma - conjunctivitis with inclusions, which is characterized by edema of the eyelids, purulent discharge, follicles, infiltration and congestion hyperemia, corneal changes. A person who has a mucous membrane of the urinary tract or conjunctiva is the source of infection. The causative agent can get into the eye of a healthy person through infected water, during labor, through poorly washed hands. The disease is most often one eye

Treatment

Depending on the nature of the course of the disease, conjunctives use different medications. If conjunctivitis is caused by an infection, antibiotics, sulfonamide preparations, drugs with disinfectant and anti-inflammatory action are used for treatment. If the treatment is delayed, then it is necessary to use antibiotics, given the sensitivity of the microflora of the conjunctiva to them. When allergic reactions are resorted to using desensitizing agents, with degenerative processes use cytostatic drugs. Eye drops and ophthalmic ointments are injected into the conjunctival sac. Drug treatment is prescribed to the patient after the results of studies of the detachable from the conjunctival sac

Conjunctivitis nonspecific catarrhal treatment

Washing of the eyes with solutions: rivanol (1: 5000), boric acid (2%), furacilin (1: 5000), potassium permanganate (1: 5000). Instillations in the conjunctival sac 10% solution of sodium norsulfazole, 20-30% solution of sulfacil sodium (Albucide), 0.5% solution of gentamicin, 1% erythromycin solution, 0.25% solution of levomycetin, 0.5% solution of neomycin phosphate. Eye drops drip four to six times a day. Recommended eye ointments in the conjunctival sac: 1% oleandomycin, 1% tetracycline, 0.5% neomycinic, 1% erythromycin, 10% sulfapiridazine - sodium, 0.5% gentamicin and 1-5% emulsion sintomycin

Conjunctivitis diplobacillary (angular) treatment

Apply zinc sulfate in the form of instillation from 0.25 to 0.5% and 1% (less often) solutions from 4 to 6 times a day. In the form of drops for use: 0.5% hydrocortisone solution, 0.25% solution of levomycetin, 1% tetracycline, 2.5% solution of polymyxin - three times a day. For the lower eyelid, it is necessary to lay a 1% emulsion of synthomycin or 1% tetracycline ointment. Recommended duration of treatment from one to one and a half months

Conjunctivitis diphtheria treatment

Isolation of the patient is necessary. Intramuscularly injected antidiphtheria serum (6000-10 000 units), warm lotions are made, the conjunctiva is washed with warm solutions of potassium permanganate (1: 5000) or boric acid (2%), drops are dripped: erythromycin (1%), penicillin (20,000 units in 1 ml of isotonic sodium chloride solution), gentamicin (0.5%), sulfacyl sodium (30%), oleandomycin phosphate (1%), levomycetin (0.25%), neomycin sulfate (0.5%), sulfapyridazine sodium (10-20% %), norsulfazole (10%). For centuries, 20% ointment sulfacil sodium (20%), penicillin ointment (20,000 units per gram of base), 1% erythromycin, 1% oletetrine, 1% tetracycline, 0.5% kanamycin, 0.5% gentamicin, 0.5% neomycin , 1% oleandomicin, 1-5% emulsion of synthomycin. For injured corneas, drops containing vitamins - riboflavin with ascorbic acid on 5% glucose solution, citral, 0.5% thiamine ointment, are prescribed. Antibiotics (erythromycin, ampicillin, levomycetin, tetracycline, rifampicin) are prescribed; intramuscularly administered injections of penicillin and sulfonamide preparations (sulfapiridazine-sodium, sulfadimethoxin, sulfacil-sodium). Treatment should be continued until complete recovery and negative bacteriological test results are obtained

Paratrahoma treatment

Assign solutions of potassium permanganate (1: 5000), furacilin (1: 5000), mercuric hydroxyanide (1: 5000), rivanol (1: 5000), 1% olethalin solution, 1% tetracycline solution, 0.25% levomycetin solution, 1% solution erythromycin, 30% solution of sulfacyl sodium, 20% solution of sulfapyridazine sodium. Apply 1% of the ointment: erythromycin, tetracycline, ditetramycin, eubetal. If the treatment takes a long time, sulfanilamides (sulfapiridazine-sodium, sulfadimezin, etazol) and antibiotics (tetracycline, oletetrin, doxycycline)

Prevention

- Strictly observe the rules of hygiene (keep your hands clean)

- Use an individual towel and pillow case

- Avoid swimming pools with chlorinated water

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