Carcinoid: symptoms and treatment of the disease
Carcinoid (neurocarcinoma, carcinoid syndrome, argentaffinoma) is a rare hormone-active tumor, which in its structure resembles a cancer. It belongs to the group as a hoop. In most cases, these tumors are benign, but with the ability to metastasize - often lead to very serious complications.
This tumor is mainly localized in the gastrointestinal tract: in 80% of the recorded cases in the appendix, the remaining cases occur in the intestines, stomach, gall bladder and pancreas. Very rarely, a tumor occurs in the ovary, liver, bronchi and other organs. The size of the carcinoid ranges from 0.1 cm to 2 cm, in some cases can reach from 6 to 8 cm in diameter. In its structure, the tumor has a densely elastic consistency of yellow-gray color. The most characteristic sign of this disease is the presence in the cytoplasm of argentaffin granules and cells of birefringent lipids.
Also, a distinctive feature of carcinoid is the slow growth of the tumor. Metastases appear in later stages of the disease (approximately 40% of reported cases), the exception is K. appendix, metastasizing very rarely
The causes of the onset of this disease, as in other and other tumors, are not fully understood to date. Many symptoms are caused by the hormonal activity of the tumor. Based on the results of numerous laboratory studies, the increased secretion of tumor cells by histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, lysylbadicinin and prostaglandins was demonstrated.
Clinically, the disease is divided into a functioning and non-functioning carcinoid. A feature of a dysfunctional cancer is that it can be asymptomatic for a sufficiently long period of time
The course and symptoms of this disease are a combination of local symptoms caused by the tumor itself and its hormonal activity. Local manifestations include: local soreness, signs resembling acute appendicitis, symptoms of intestinal obstruction, there may be pain during defecation and intestinal bleeding, significant weight loss and anemia. Also, carcinoid syndrome is characterized by vasomotor reactions, characteristic skin changes, bronchospasm attacks, pulmonary artery and heart lesions, hyperperistaltic of the gastrointestinal tract.
. A short-term reddening of the skin of the face and upper body, which is accompanied by a sensation of fever, general weakness, tachycardia, runny nose, lacrimation, bronchospasm, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, cramping abdominal pain and diarrhea, is a typical symptom of this disease. The duration of attacks ranges from a few seconds and up to ten minutes, and throughout the day they can be repeated many times. Often, patients are diagnosed with a tricuspid heart valve, circulatory failure, stenosis of the pulmonary artery mouth.
Diagnosis of this disease, especially if a small tumor - is quite difficult. In the early stage, nonfunctioning K. is most often found completely randomly during examination or during surgery. Functional K. is diagnosed as well as other similar formations, based on instrumental and laboratory studies and general clinical picture
Treatment is only surgical, which consists in the radical removal of the tumor and metastases. Chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of this disease are ineffective. The prognosis for life is relatively favorable, but only in the absence of metastases.