Chronic urticaria is a rash, which is characterized by the manifestation of an allergic reaction in the form of blisters for more than six months. The cause of the disease can be established only in every fourth case. People of all ages and ethnic groups are affected, young people are more often ill. The diagnosis of complications does not cause, it is much more difficult to determine in the treatment, as well as in prevention. The very course of the disease is very unpredictable, dragged on for months and years.
Those who are ill should be checked for influence of such factors as ingestants, inhalants, injectants, infectious diseases, internal diseases.
Injestants are substances that enter the digestive system and act as strong provocateurs of urticaria. To such food substances are medicines (antibiotics) and food additives.
Inhalants - they include dust, pollen, a feather.
Injectants - these include injections of drugs, bites of wasps, bees, and other insects.
Infections both viral and bacterial, parasitic and fungal.
Internal diseases, which include chronic infections, as well as diseases such as thyroid cancer and lupus erythematosus
Chronic urticaria - causes
Causes of chronic urticaria are mast cells of the skin, which fail in violations of the functions of the liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, outbreaks of chronic infection, toxicosis of pregnant women, as well as the products of decay of malignant tumors. From the foregoing it can be seen that chronic allergic reactions can act as a clinical manifestation of some systemic diseases.
The cause can often come from chemicals that are capable of inducing the disease by contact. These substances are hygiene products: toothpastes, shampoos, washing powders, chemical allergens, cosmetics
Chronic urticaria - symptoms
The disease is characterized by swollen migrating blisters, spots in the form of figures, rings of red and pink. The sizes of the centers of lesions reach forms with a palm. The foci are able to merge and acquire polycyclic contours, and in due course to change the form, the sizes. On their own, rashes can pass for 24 hours and then appear as new foci. Some patients with extensive lesions suffer from systemic symptoms: often shortness of breath, nausea, painful itching, noisy labored breathing, headache and abdominal pain, diarrhea
Diagnosis of chronic urticaria
Laboratory tests can be of great help in diagnosing chronic urticaria and include x-rays to exclude sinusitis, as well as radiography of teeth to exclude a hidden abscess, a blood test, a thyroid stimulating hormone stimulation test, an express test for streptococci and a throat swab, a test on microsomal antibodies.
But the differential diagnosis is carried out with the following diseases: physical urticaria , urticarial vasculitis, exudative erythema, bulezny pemphigoid.
Physical urticaria represents short-term urticaria caused by physical causes: scratching, pressure, heat, vibration, cold, and ultraviolet irradiation.
Urticaria vasculitis is a systemic disease in which lupus erythematosus, very reminiscent of chronic urticaria, can be developed, but differs from it with spots of purpura. Urticaria vasculitis can be confirmed by a histological examination of the biopsy material.
The bulez pemphigoid has in the early stages of the urticar pockets, which are characterized by the formation of blisters.
Exudative erythema is characterized by an infectious-allergic origin, in which the skin and mucous membranes are affected
Treatment of chronic urticaria
Chronic urticaria is characterized by a daily (about 6 weeks or more) appearance of blisters, the existence of which lasts up to 24 hours. Chronic rashes develop on different parts of the skin and are replaced by remissions of different duration. Treatment of the chronicle begins precisely with the elimination of the cause of the disease and the appointment of a hypoallergenic diet that eliminates the products that cause histamine-liberation. These include coffee, nuts, citrus, chocolate, honey, cheese, bananas, sauerkraut, smoked products, fatty and fried foods. It is necessary to abstain from medical drugs and alcohol. Among the contraindications was a sauna and a swimming pool, bathing in hot water, increased rubbing of the skin with a washcloth, and a towel. It is necessary to give preference in the sock to cotton fabrics and forget about the use of antistatic agents, to do laundry with hypoallergenic detergents.
Chronic urticaria is treated with antihistamines.
Hydroxyzine is prescribed from 10 to 25 mg, with acute necessity every four hours, 100 mg. Hydroxysin has a sedative effect.
Clarinex (Desloratadine), Zirtek (Cetirizine), Telfast, Allegra do not cause hypnotic effect and therefore are recommended in the afternoon.
It is important to note that the main symptom of urticaria, which is easy to determine the severity of the disease, is itchy skin and the effectiveness of treatment is determined by reducing itching of the skin. It should be emphasized that a slight decrease in blisters and itching does not cause an antihistamine drug to be canceled. The time factor in treatment is very important and the absence of a result within two days does not give grounds for canceling an antihistamine. The effectiveness of the prescribed antihistamine is evaluated after 7 days. And for the effective treatment of chronic urticaria, up to 6 weeks of taking antiallergic drugs is necessary.
For those who are ill, remember that the key to successful treatment of chronic urticaria is correction and treatment of concomitant diseases.