Gonorrhea: symptoms, course and treatment of the disease
Gonorrhea is a classic infectious disease that is transmitted sexually. Its causative agent is the gonococcus, which gets on the mucous membrane of the genital organs, begins to multiply quickly enough and causes inflammation. Like other sexually transmitted diseases , gonorrhea is transmitted mainly through sexual intercourse (with vaginal, anal, and oral sex) and affects both men and women. Out-of-pocket / household contamination (through dishes, towels, pool water, linen, sponge, etc.) is very rare, since gonococcus can exist outside the human body for no more than four hours. Also, sometimes there are cases of infection of a newborn child from a sick mother during the period of childbirth. With this disease, it is possible to damage the mucous membranes of the cervical and urethra, rectum, cervix and even the eyes
Ways of infection with gonorrhea
. In the majority of recorded cases, gonorrhea infection occurs during sexual intercourse in the vagina, rectum, and also in oral sex . . Infection of the newborn is possible with his passage through the birth canal, which in consequence is manifested by the development of gonococcal conjunctivitis .
The probability of domestic infection is extremely low, because: gonococcus quickly dies (within four hours) being outside the human body; for infection, it is necessary to get into the body the right amount of gonococci, which is extremely unlikely with a household method.
The probability of gonorrhea infection with one-time sexual contact with the carrier of infection, without the use of a condom: in vaginal or anal - in 50% of cases; at oral - it is seldom enough.
The incubation period in women is from five to ten days, and in men from two to five. However, there are cases when the duration of the incubation period increases to thirty or more days or gonorrhea can immediately go into a latent current. Because of the use of antibacterial drugs or sulfonamides (in the treatment of completely different diseases: colds, etc.), the incubation period can also be significantly prolonged
Symptoms of gonorrhea
In women, the onset of the development of this disease in most cases is asymptomatic, which greatly complicates its timely detection.
Symptoms of gonorrhea in women:
- Pain when urinating
- White-yellow discharge from the vagina
- Pain in lower abdomen
- Intermenstrual bleeding
In men, at first, there are discomfortable sensations in the urethra, and then there is itching, burning and there are purulent yellowish-green discharge.
The defeat of the rectum (gonococcal proctitis) in most cases is asymptomatic. In some cases, pain, itching, and discharge from the rectum are possible.
The defeat of the pharynx (gonococcal pharyngitis) also often occurs asymptomatically, occasionally accompanied by pain in the throat
Complications of gonorrhea
. In women, the most common complications of gonorrhea are inflammatory diseases of the uterus and its appendages, which often leads to female infertility .
In men, a common complication is epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis).
In the case of the spread of gonococcal infection to other organs, there is a so-called disseminated gonococcal infection, which affects the liver, heart, brain, joints and skin.
Diagnosis of gonorrhea consists of: examining the patient's complaints, examining and palpating the external genitalia, examining the discharge from the urethra, examining the seminal vesicles and prostate, examining urine, juice of the prostate and sperm. Also, such particularly accurate diagnostic methods as seeding and PCR
Treatment of gonorrhea
Treatment of gonorrhea (both sex partners!) Must necessarily be carried out by a qualified venereologist, since self-medication will lead to the transition of the disease to a chronic condition, which can lead to irreversible processes and complications.
Successful treatment of this disease directly depends on the selected antibacterial drug, its dosage, the method of administration and the duration of the therapy. If necessary, the doctor prescribes physiotherapy, immunotherapy and local treatment. At the time of treatment, it is necessary to completely abandon sexual activity; limit (or completely refuse) the use of alcohol, salty and spicy dishes; it is forbidden to lift weights and engage in outdoor sports (skating, skiing, biking, etc.).
Seven days after the end of the course of treatment, a control triple laboratory examination is appointed (at regular intervals for two months) and if gonococci are not detected by the results of the tests - the patient is considered cured
Prevention of gonorrhea
The basis for the prevention of this disease is the mandatory use of a condom during sexual intercourse. It is also necessary to avoid accidental sexual intercourse with an unfamiliar partner, and if they do happen, it is necessary to undergo the examination for the presence of sexual infections as soon as possible.