Hypoproteinemia is a pathologically caused sharp or gradual decrease in the level of total protein in the plasma component of the blood. For the formation of this pathological state, it is sufficient alimentary intake of protein-containing products into the body. In this case, the non-severe form of hypoproteinemic syndrome develops. If hypoproteinemia develops as a result of a malfunction in the body of liver function, which is the main regulator of protein metabolism, severe organic changes occur in the human body, requiring immediate medical correction.
Causes of hypoproteinemia
The development of hypoproteinemia occurs due to a sharp decrease in the quantitative index of the albumin fraction of the protein, and the level of globulins in the blood plasma can be unchanged and even elevated in some situations. There are many predisposing factors, each of which can provoke the development of clinical manifestations of hypoproteinemia, but the severe form of this pathology is most often observed when a combination of etiopathogenetic mechanisms.
The most common etiologic provoking factor is a violation of the human diet, in which the fact of the intake of foods rich in protein is sharply limited or completely stops. This form of hypoproteinemia is characterized by a slow sluggish course and the elimination of its clinical manifestations does not cause difficulties, since for leveling hypoproteinemia it is enough just to correct the eating behavior of the patient.
The next pathogenetic mechanism of hypoproteinemia development is enhanced denaturation and excretion of its decay products mainly through the organs of the urinary system. Unfortunately, this condition in most cases is accompanied by a violation of the protein-synthetical function of the liver, which aggravates the patient's condition. A remarkable fact is that if the liver function is violated in the form of protein fractions, the patient experiences a significant decrease in laboratory parameters, both albumins and globulins. Hypoproteinemia, caused by a violation of protein formation and its enhanced disintegration, requires only a medical correction performed in a hospital.
A rare form of hypoproteinemia is genetically determined, caused by the presence in the child of a congenital defect in the form of complete absence of one of the protein fractions. In the development of this pathology, the inadequate activity of the structures of the reticuloendothelial system plays an important role, leading to a violation of the synthesis of globulins by plasma cells. Congenital hypoproteinemia is dangerous for a child with the development of severe infectious complications, since a sharp decrease in the globulin fraction of the protein is inevitably accompanied by a decrease in the body's immune response to infectious agents.
Isolated reduction of globulin fractions of protein at a relative normal index of albumins is a rare condition and its occurrence is possible in such pathologies as amyloidosis , traumatic shock and nephrotic syndrome. In a situation where under no circumstances it is impossible to determine the cause of hypoproteinemia, establish the conclusion "essential hypoproteinemic syndrome", which is extremely rare.
Symptoms and signs of hypoproteinemia
The most pathognomonic clinical criterion of hypoprostenia is edematous syndrome. Edema in hypoproteinemia can be both limited and diffuse, but in all situations there is a persistent progressive course of edematous syndrome. In situations where the development of hypoproteinemia, as a laboratory criterion of edematous syndrome, is due to an isolated decrease in the albumin fraction of the protein, the patient early signs of pleural and peritoneal exudation, expressed in persistent respiratory disorders. Exudation into the pericardial space is observed only in the case of critical hypoproteinemia and ends with a lethal outcome.
The most important diagnostic sign of hypoproteinemia is the typical localization of edema in the projection of the distal parts of the lower extremities and less often the paraorbital region. In a situation where hypoproteinemia is caused by a violation of the function of the liver and the small intestine, the manifestations of the underlying disease appear in the foreground in the clinical symptomatology.
Hypoproteinemia in Pregnancy
Hypoproteinemia in pregnancy is one of the laboratory-clinical criteria for late gestosis and, along with a significant increase in body weight, edematous syndrome, proteinuria, persistent arterial hypertension and increased convulsive readiness, is a threat to the life and health of a pregnant woman.
Prolonged course of hypoproteinemia is accompanied by a pronounced decrease in the protein index in the blood plasma, which is less than 60 g / l, which is caused not only by a violation of the protein-synthetic function of the liver, but also by a decrease in the colloid-osmotic type of pressure of the plasma component of the blood. The result of the above changes is the increased permeability of the vascular endothelium and the yield of the protein into the extracellular space. There is a clear correlation between the severity of manifestations of gestosis and a decrease in protein levels in the blood of a pregnant woman.
Critical hypoproteinemia provokes the development of severe complications in the form of severe thrombocytopenia and fetal hypotrophy. Due to the development of severe nephropathy, the risk of developing critical conditions threatening the life of a pregnant woman and fetus increases sharply. In this connection, the appearance of even the initial signs of hypoproteinemia in a pregnant woman needs immediate correction.
Treatment of hypoproteinemia
The alimentary type of hypoproteinemia is the most favorable with respect to the prognosis for the recovery of the patient, since the curative measures for this condition are limited to the correction of the patient's eating behavior. Severe variants of hypoproteinemia are in need of urgent medical correction in a hospital.
The only effective method of eliminating hypoproteinemia is the administration of drugs, groups of anabolic steroids, the effect of which causes an increase in protein production (intramuscular administration of Retabolil in a dose of 5 mg once every three weeks). To improve the effectiveness of anabolic steroids, this therapy should be supplemented with the prescription of vitamin-containing preparations of complex action.
With existing signs of exudative pleurisy or ascites, laparocentesis and thoracentesis are used as symptomatic therapy.
? Hypoproteinemia - which doctor will help ? If there is or suspected development of hypoproteinemia, you should immediately seek advice from such doctors as a hematologist, nephrologist and transfusiologist.