Hypertonic disease

гипертоническая болезнь фото Hypertensive disease is one of the most common diseases of SS, developing as a consequence of the primary disturbance of the vasos-regulating centers and the subsequent mechanisms of neurohumoral and renal genesis, which are characterized by increased arterial pressure, functional as well as organic disorders CNS, heart and kidney in severe forms of the disease. As a result, hypertension is a neurosis of higher centers that control and regulate this pressure.

For such diseases as endocrine, renal, cardiovascular and other, symptomatic, or secondary form of hypertensive disease is considered a fundamental symptom that causes damage to organs and the formation of a pathological process in them.

Hypertensive illness is today considered a very common disease of SSH, in which the blood pressure is repeatedly fixed above the indices in 140/90 mm Hg, which in the future increases the risk of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular complications. In addition, this disease equally applies to both sexes. Thus, in 4% of people from 20 to 23 years of age there is increased pressure, and at the age of fifty to seventy years it is 50%.

The prognosis of patients diagnosed with hypertension and the further tactics of therapeutic treatment will depend on the indices of BP, contributing factors, "target organs" that are involved in this pathological process, the clinical states and the extent of this disease.

Hypertensive cause illness

The causes of the development of the disease to date are not fully clarified. Hypertensive disease is characterized by the early detection of the main pathological moment - a common spasm of arterioles, which relates to the objective method of determining the increased pressure in the entire system of arterial vessels.

The formation of persistent processes of this disease is influenced by various factors that regulate blood pressure under certain physical conditions.

To predisposing factors of the emergence of hypertension can be attributed hereditary predisposition, emotional and nervous overload, stress, disruption in the endocrine system, obesity , nicotine, drinking alcohol, hypodynamia, kidney pathology, age, etc.

One of the main reasons for increasing blood pressure is a nervous overexertion, which can be triggered by acute and chronic psychological and emotional stress, constant mental overstrain, trauma to the skull or brain, and hypoxia. Particular attention is paid to the emerging tachycardia accompanied by an increased cardiac output.

Among the pathological factors of the formation of elevated blood pressure, violations of the medulla oblongata and hypothalamus are distinguished. And factors of a humoral nature, as a rule, are formed in the kidneys. With blood circulation disturbed in them, renin is produced, which turns hypertensinogen into angiotensin. In this case, the latter substance contributes to the narrowing of the vessels and the production of the mineral corticoid by the adrenal glands. And it, in turn, affects the nephrons, stimulating the absorption of sodium, which delays in the channel of blood vessels and provokes an increase in blood pressure.

In addition, the significant work of glands of the endocrine system, such as the genital, thyroid and pituitary, has some connection with the production of hormones, which are involved in increasing blood pressure.

On the development of hypertension, foodborne factors can also have a direct effect. So, for example, persons consuming excessive amounts of sodium chloride are registered with higher blood pressure values. As a result of the fact that sodium is retained in the body, edema of the vessel wall and an increase in blood pressure are noted.

Not the last role in the emergence of hypertension is attributed to the genetic factor. With heredity of bilateral nature, the same type of metabolism is inherited, and this causes a disruption in the production of substances that regulate this pressure. Under the influence of all these factors, hypertension is finally formed. In addition, a prolonged process of narrowing the arterioles of the pancreas and adrenal glands causes sclerotic changes in them. And in cerebral, coronary vessels and in the aorta, atherosclerosis progressively forms, which contributes to the violation of blood circulation in the relevant organs and the development of hypertensive disease.

Hypertensive Symptoms Symptoms

One of the most common pathological diseases of the whole SS. hypertensive disease is considered. Hypertension is a constantly elevated blood pressure. The process of increasing pressure comes at a time when the arteries or their smaller branches, that is, the arterioles, narrow. Arteries are considered the main transport routes, through which blood enters all organs, as well as tissues of the human body. In most people, arterioles can narrow, initially as a result of spasm, and in the future their lumen is constantly in a constricted state, as a consequence of a thickened wall, so the flow of blood to overcome these narrowing must strengthen the cardiac work, and this causes large releases of blood into the channel of blood vessels. Thus, blood pressure increases, which leads to hypertension in the future.

This pathological process is considered chronic, which is characterized by a persistent increase in blood pressure above the systolic pressure of 139 mm Hg. Art. and diastolic - in 90 mm Hg. Art.

If, with elevated blood pressure, there is a lesion of an organ, this pathological disease is considered a secondary form of hypertension. Virtually 90% of people suffer from an essential form of hypertension. As a rule, the count of increased blood pressure begins with a triple registration of a doctor level of 140/90 mm Hg. Art. and more in patients who do not take drugs that reduce blood pressure.

It is important to know that increasing pressure on small but persistent figures does not yet indicate the presence of hypertension.

The symptomatology of this disease is not characterized by a certain specificity. In addition, patients for a long period of time may not even be aware of the existing pathology, do not make any special complaints, lead an active lifestyle with occasional fits of lightheadedness, expressed in dizziness and weakness. Many people associate this with fatigue, although it is necessary now to pay attention to the first signs of the onset of the development of hypertension and, first of all, to measure blood pressure.

Patients in the presence of this disease make complaints only when there is a lesion of target organs. They are the most sensitive to pressure rises. In this case, with the initial changes in blood circulation in the brain, the head begins to spin, pain and noise in the head appear, memory and working capacity decrease. But in the future, the patient may dumb limbs, there is general weakness, flies flies, doubles in the eyes, speech is difficult, but at the very beginning of the disease all circulatory disturbances are characterized by the coming character. But with a far-reaching stage of hypertension, complications can develop in the form of a cerebral infarction or hemorrhage.

The very first and subsequently constant manifestation of elevated blood pressure is hypertrophy or an increase in LV as a result of the growth of its mass due to thickening of cardiomyocytes. First, the LV wall thickens, and then the chambers of the heart themselves expand. In this case, this hypertrophy refers to the unfavorable prognostic sign of hypertensive disease, as it contributes to the risk of abnormalities in the rhythm of the work of the ventricles, heart failure, IHD, sudden death. With the progression of LV dysfunction, there is difficulty in breathing when exercising, asthma of the heart, lung edema , against a background of hypertensive crisis, and a congestive form of heart failure. As a result, myocardial infarction and ventricular fibrillation quite often occur. And with atherosclerosis, the aorta widens, which can eventually serve as a rupture and stratification.

Renal lesions are characterized by the appearance in the urine of protein, microhematuria and cylindruria. But the development of renal failure against the background of hypertension is very rare. When the eyes are affected, as a result of this disease, vision deteriorates, light sensitivity decreases, and sometimes blindness develops. Thus, it is necessary to be very attentive to hypertension.

A characteristic symptom of the manifestation of hypertension is headache , which can occur at any time of the day, but mostly at night or in the morning, after sleep. This pain is characterized by heaviness and raspiranie in the neck, but it can extend to other parts of the head. As a rule, with hypertension the pain in the head is shrouded in nature. Sometimes soreness increases with coughing, head inclinations accompanied by minor swelling of the face and eyelids. With the patient's vertical position, muscle activity and massage, venous outflow improves, and as a result, this pain becomes less or completely disappears. In addition, such pain with increasing blood pressure can occur as a result of the tension of the soft muscles of the head or its tendons. To promote its development may psycho-emotional or physical stress, but the cessation of this pain is conditioned by rest and resolution of conflict situations. As a rule, a headache is called a stress pain, which is sometimes manifested by compression or tightening of the head accompanied by nausea and dizziness. But with prolonged incessant pains there is irritability, quick temper, increased sensitivity to loud music and noise.

In hypertensive illness, characteristic pains in the heart are also observed, which are mainly found on its apex or in the left part of the sternum. They arise in a state of absolute rest or against the background of emotional overstrain, as well as without provoking physical exertion. These heart pains, not suppressed by nitroglycerin, can last quite a long time.

Against the background of high blood pressure in some patients develops difficulty breathing in the form of dyspnea, first after exercise, and in the future and at rest, which may indicate significant damage to the myocardium and the formation of HF.

In the presence of cardiac pathology in the form of insufficiency, the lower extremities begin to swell in most patients. This is due to the retention of water and sodium in the body as a result of hypertension due to the use of certain medications or a violation of the functional activity of the kidneys.

When visual impairment as a consequence of hypertensive disease against the background of increased blood pressure, flies appear before the eyes, fog or veil. This symptomatology is characteristic for functional impairment of blood circulation in the ocular retina. As a result of gross changes in the retina, such as vascular thrombosis, retinal detachment or hemorrhage, vision loss, diplopia, and sometimes loss of vision may occur.

Degrees of risk of essential hypertension

Every year, in connection with a disease such as hypertension, scientific conferences are held, attended by cardiologists from around the world. To date, there is adopted in 2003, a single classification of the disease in terms of degrees. As a result, this pathological process is characterized by three degrees of severity, for which different values ​​of blood pressure are characteristic. So, the normal pressure is the systolic pressure in the range 120-129 mm Hg. Art. and diastolic - 80-84 mm Hg. Art.

For the first (light) degree of hypertension, the pressure in mm Hg corresponds. Art. from 140/90 to 160/100. In addition, at the same time there is persistent BP without changes in the internal organs.

The second (moderate) degree of this disease is characterized by pressure fluctuations from 160/100 to 180/110 mm Hg. Art. This blood pressure is characterized by a stable course, but to bring it back to normal it is necessary to use medicines. As a rule, when examining such patients, they reveal an enlarged left ventricle.

With the third (severe) degree of hypertension, persistent blood pressure becomes higher than 180/110 mm Hg. Art. As a result of this condition, various complications develop in the form of circulatory disorders of the brain, kidney failure and heart attack.

In the process of diagnosis of the disease, based on modern classification, the degree of hypertension is set strictly when taking into account all the risk factors, precisely those that aggravate the pathological process. Such factors are considered a threat with respect to the formation of cardiovascular complications. In addition, all available factors, as well as their number will significantly affect the prognosis of hypertension. And to determine the degree of risk of this disease, it is important to take into account the age group of patients, their sex, the quantitative content of cholesterol, metabolic and hereditary factors, as well as hypodynamia, smoking, and damage to organs that act as targets.

There are four degrees of risk of increasing blood pressure in hypertensive disease. The first degree with low risk is characteristic for such patients, who during the first ten years from the very beginning of the pathological process, the probability of complications is reduced to 15%. For the second degree with an average risk - the probability of complications is almost 20%. The third degree is defined by the risk of complications of about 30%. And the fourth degree is characterized by a rather high risk of complications, over 30%.

Risk factors that can worsen the course of the disease and its prognosis include corrigible and not correctable. In the first variant, when getting rid of factors contributing to the development of hypertension in the form of a certain meal, smoking, hypodynamia, complete recovery from this pathology is possible. The second option includes: the age of patients, hereditary and racial predisposition.

At the 1st degree of hypertension there are absolutely no risk factors, so a changed lifestyle, regular observations at the doctor will help stabilize the patient's condition. And in case of not lowering blood pressure, medication is prescribed.

At the 2nd degree of risk, treatment is prescribed after observation for half a year.

Patients with a third degree must undergo a medical examination with the appointment of a medication.

The 4th risk level is characterized by an unfavorable prognosis with a high probability of complications, which requires an urgent examination with immediate appointment of appropriate treatment.

Medical history of hypertension

The medical history is considered to be the main medical document that is compiled for every patient who applies to any medical or preventive institution.

So, for example, when a patient enters a waiting room with a diagnosis of hypertension, which needs to be confirmed, the passport and general information about the incoming patient is first filled. In those cases when the doctor examines the patient primarily in the waiting room, the case history is filled in the same place with the appointment of diagnostic methods and drug therapy. But when a patient enters the department of cardiology or intensive care immediately, the primary examination and filling of the medical history is performed by the doctor directly in the department.

To begin with, the patient's complaints are elucidated, which give an idea of ​​the characteristics of the disease, as well as the attendant. Sometimes they are so pronounced that you can immediately assume hypertensive disease. In this case, patients complain of a headache in the morning, with localization at the back of the head, in combination with the severity and unhappiness of the head. At the same time, they complain of bad sleep, irritability, decreased efficiency and memory. In the future, there may be complaints of pain in the heart, shortness of breath against physical activity and visual impairment.

Then the attending doctor collects an anamnesis of illness and life, as well as an allergic medical history of the patient with a diagnosis of hypertension.

When questioning, find out when and with what symptomatology this pathology began, whether the onset was gradual, acute or subtle for the patient. It is mandatory to ask, with which the patient himself connects the onset of the pathological process. It is important to find out the duration of the course of hypertensive disease, what studies and results of treatment were performed earlier.

When drawing up an anamnesis of life, they ask about relatives and friends of the patient, whether they were ill with any diseases, in particular hypertensive disease. In the future, the patient is questioned about the lifestyle, bad habits, work activity, living conditions, the nature of nutrition, which is important in confirming the diagnosis of hypertension. It also reveals the patient's nervous and mental state, related to the situation in the family and at work. And women are asked about menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth or menopause.

Further, the medical history is filled with a description of the general examination of the patient and the condition of the internal organs. In a patient with hypertensive disease, the disease can occur in three stages. Patients in the first stage have only elevated blood pressure, without changes in the internal organs. In the second stage, there is increased blood pressure and an increase in LV (after a direct examination of the patient, X-ray, ECG or echocardiography). At this time, the kidney can be involved in the pathological process, so pay attention to urine tests with protein traces, single red blood cells (formed by renal atherosclerosis), as well as a rise in temperature. In addition, coronary artery atherosclerosis for this stage of hypertension is characterized by contracting pains behind the sternum, which occur during physical exertion and pass after walking or nitroglycerin. But in the third stage, heart attack, paresis and paralysis can occur on the background of impaired cerebral circulation, and also a sudden change in vision and even a complete loss of it. At any stage, a hypertensive crisis can develop, triggering the onset of a stroke or an attack of cardiac asthma.

Next, palpation is performed, due to which the apex of the heart is determined, and percussion is determined by cardiac boundaries. During listening, attention is paid to heart tones, its rhythm, as well as the absence or presence of noise, heart rate and perform blood pressure measurement.

After the examination, a preliminary diagnosis is made by the doctor, an appropriate diagnostic examination plan is drawn up and medication is prescribed depending on the stage of hypertension.

In the case of a hypertensive crisis, first it is urgently stopped, and then the history of the disease is filled out with the words of the relatives or the patient himself.

Mandatory methods for diagnosing hypertension are: measurement of blood pressure, electrocardiography, X-ray, phonocardiography, veloergometry, ekokardiografiya. In addition, laboratory methods of investigation, such as a general blood test, a biochemical study for proteins, a C-reactive protein, transaminase, fibrinogen, etc., as well as a urine test, are prescribed. And only on the basis of all methods of examination the final diagnosis is exposed and complex treatment of essential hypertension is prescribed.

In the appropriate sheets of the medical history, after a daily round, the doctor prescribes the necessary treatment, and also records a patient's condition, which also attaches all analyzes of the examinations. In case of intolerance of certain drugs, in case of their cancellation or replacement, everything is fixed by corresponding records in the case history of a particular patient with a diagnosis of hypertensive disease.

After recovery the patient prepares a discharge epicrisis, which briefly describes the patient's admission date, his complaints, the nature of the course of hypertension, the results of the tests before the scheduled treatment and after, as well as the entire treatment tactic, and finally a final prognosis is made.

It is compulsory for each patient to write in writing additional recommendations in observing the regime of the day, nutrition and drug therapy after discharge from the hospital.

Stages of essential hypertension

Hypertensive disease according to morphological features is divided into three stages of the current. First of all, this is a transitory stage, followed by a stage of common pathological changes in the arteries and the third is the stage with altered organs as a result of disturbances in the arterial vessels.

♦ For the 1st (transitory) stage of hypertension, the periodic rise in blood pressure is typical as a result of spasm of arterioles, during which the vascular wall receives less oxygen, that is, it experiences starvation, therefore, various changes of a dystrophic nature occur in it.

Then spasm is replaced by paralysis of arterioles with preservation of hypoxia of their walls. As a result, the walls of arterioles become strongly permeable, their plasmorrhage develops, which extends beyond the vessels, therefore, as a result, perivascular edema develops.

After the blood pressure is normalized and microcirculation is restored, blood from the perivascular spaces and arterial walls is removed. And as a result of increasing loads on the heart, which are repeated repeatedly, LV hypertrophy of compensatory form develops. If at this stage to remove the conditions that cause tension of a psychological and emotional nature, and then conduct the necessary drug treatment, then the beginning pathological process of hypertension can be stopped, since in the first stage there are no irreversible changes.

♦ In the second stage, characterized by a widespread change in the arteries, there is a steady rise in blood pressure. This all happens as a result of a deep violation of the SS. and its changes.

The transition of the first stage (transitional) of high blood pressure to the second (stable) is due to the actions of several neuroendocrinal mechanisms with the greatest value of reflex, renal and endocrine functions. This often repeats the pressure rises, which as a result reduce the sensitivity of baroreceptors located on the aortic arch. And they, under normal functioning, weaken the activity of the sympathetic-adrenal system and lower blood pressure. And with the increased influence of this system and the spasm of renal arterioles, stimulation of renin production occurs. This enzyme in the blood contributes to the formation of angiotensin, which helps in stabilizing blood pressure at high rates. In addition, this substance enhances the processes of formation and exit of the adrenals of mineralocorticoids, which further increase the pressure and promote its stabilization.

But the constantly recurring spasms of arterioles, the increasing processes of plasmorrhage and the increasing amount of protein mass on the walls of blood vessels, cause the development of hyalinosis or arteriolosclerosis. As a result, the walls of the vessels become denser, less elastic, thicken and, as a result, lead to a decrease in the arteriolar lumen. Thus, constantly high blood pressure significantly increases the cardiac load, and this contributes to the development of compensatory hypertrophy. In this case, the heart mass reaches almost 750 grams. Therefore, constant high blood pressure indices increase the load on the arteries of a large property and cause atrophy of muscle cells, which leads to loss of elasticity by the vessels themselves.

In combination with the changed biochemistry of blood, accumulated cholesterol and protein, there is an opportunity in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions of large vessels.

♦ For the third stage of hypertensive disease, changes in organs as a result of affected arteries are characteristic. These changes are secondary violations. The severity of these changes, as well as symptomatic manifestations, directly depend on the damage of arterioles and various complications, in connection with the altered vessels.

The basis of changes in organs of a chronic nature are violations of their blood supply, increasing lack of oxygen and sclerotic organ damage. At this stage, various complications develop in the form of spasm, thrombosis of arteries and arterioles, their rupture, which causes heart attacks or hemorrhages.

Treatment of essential hypertension

At the first stages of the disease, the optimal conditions for work and rest, as well as prescribed sedation medications (Elenium, Seduxen, Fenazepan, Tazepan, Valeriana, Pustyrnik, Bekhterev's medicine) form the basis of the treatment. In addition, the use of barbiturates as a result of poor sleep is recommended. In this case, it is better to allow the patient to take a hypnotic drug so that he can get a good sleep than to be afraid of a false assertion about getting used to medications and not to do anything, and as a result the patient will not get enough sleep and blood pressure will remain elevated. These principles of treatment are effective for both the second and third stages of hypertension.

It is recommended that everything that contributes to the development of the disease be eliminated. At the same time, it is necessary to exclude night shifts in their work and to abandon the work where there is exposure to vibration and noise, as well as excessive attention stress.

Essential in the treatment of hypertension is properly formulated nutrition, which should include products that, according to their energy value, will not exceed the daily requirement, and with excess body weight will be even lower. In this case, there is a strict restriction on the consumption of table salt (from five to eight grams per day).

The main goal of the treatment of hypertension is the selection of the drug, which in the future will provide normal blood pressure. It is also important to try to reach normal pressure or almost normal, as it prevents the occurrence of complications such as strokes, dynamic disorders of cerebral circulation and arteriosclerosis of the kidneys.

Great benefit in the treatment of hypertension comes from the stay of patients in preventive clinics and sanatoriums, which are organized by enterprises. Here patients can be after work in conditions of a semi-hospital nature, where a full rest, physiotherapy procedures, proper nutrition and sleep are created for the patient.

For the treatment of hypertensive disease a variety of large amounts of antihypertensive drugs are used, which reduce elevated blood pressure. Basically, these are medicines that affect the receptors of the neural genesis of the heart and blood vessels (Inder, Anaprilin, Obzidan, etc., i.e., beta-blockers); drugs that reduce the content of noradrenaline and epinephrine in the central nervous system and blood vessels (Dopegit, Clofelin, Reserpine).

The appointment of diuretics (Triampur, Furosemide, Hypothiazide) contribute to the release of water and sodium from the body and thus reduce the increased blood pressure. The peripheral vasodilators also have a hypotensive effect, which are characterized by different mechanisms of action with the expansion of the arterioles as a result (Kaptopres, Kapoten, Captopril, Prazozin, etc.). As a rule, the medicament is prescribed primarily by the attending physician.

To date, a combination therapy of essential hypertension is widely used, that is, several drugs are prescribed simultaneously, for which various mechanisms of action are characteristic. This method of therapeutic treatment allows you to prescribe drugs in small doses. Among these medicines, Adelphan can be isolated, which includes Hydralazine, Hypothiazide and Reserpine.

Patients with hypertensive disease are recommended to take antihypertensive drugs on an ongoing basis. In addition, the treatment of this pathological disease is carried out under the control of blood pressure. It is also important to remember that there is no permanently established dose of the drug, so it can both increase and decrease and be administered strictly individually, taking into account the pressure indicators.

Treatment of patients who suffer from hypertension is mainly performed on an outpatient basis. And only those patients who need to select a new combination of medicines or to clarify the diagnosis are subject to hospitalization.

A serious complication of essential hypertension is the hypertensive crisis , which needs special treatment and requires urgent measures. All of them are directed to the fact that it is possible to reduce the sharp rise of blood pressure as soon as possible, to improve cerebral and renal blood circulation. In this case, the patient creates a peace of mind and soul. In addition, the patient should have a bed rest of the day with an elevated head end and access to fresh air. With a minor hypertensive crisis, distraction therapy is used in the form of mustard plasters on the back of the neck, gastrocnemius muscles, hot foot baths and cold to the head. In those cases when compressing pains in the heart appear against the background of increased blood pressure, the ECG is recorded, since the hypertensive crisis can provoke the development of an acute form of myocardial infarction.

When the patient is in an excited state, sedative drugs are given, and in order to lower the blood pressure, first the Klofelin pill is dissolved. Sometimes helps to take Hypothiazide or Furosemide to stop the crisis. If all of the above measures are ineffective, Dibazol is administered intravenously. solution. After intravenous administration of this drug, the pressure is usually reduced after twenty minutes and the antihypertensive effect will persist for up to three hours. Simultaneously, to enhance the action of Dibazolum, Furosemide is administered internally. In addition to these medicines, during a hypertensive crisis, you can intramuscularly or intravenously introduce Clopheline, after which the patient should be in a horizontal position for at least two hours.

For crises that occur quite heavily or as a result of a poor decrease from the use of the above drugs, Pentamine is prescribed for intramuscular or slow intravenous administration with mandatory blood pressure control. Introduced ganglion blockers can provoke a sharp drop in pressure and the development of collapse, so it is important that the patient lay in bed for two to three hours and he was measured BP every twenty minutes. When orthostatic collapse occurs, it is necessary to raise the patient's legs, inject subcutaneously with Cordyamine or intramuscularly Mesaton.

Complications of essential hypertension

This pathological disease refers to a serious abnormality in CSF, which can cause various complications in the body as a consequence of the constantly increased pressure in the arteries. Patients suffering from essential hypertension are much more likely to experience pain in the temples, weakness, swirling of the head, the occurrence of noise accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Therefore, the treatment of essential hypertension in time can cause serious complications, such as heart failure , ischemic heart disease and hypertensive crisis. In the second and third stages of the disease, functional disorders of the brain, heart and kidneys can be detected.

The most dangerous complication of hypertension is the hypertensive crisis, which develops quite rapidly, causing a sharp rise in blood pressure. Symptomatic manifestations of the crisis appear in the form of nausea and incessant vomiting. As a rule, the resulting complications resulting from hypertension are a danger due to its rapid course and negative impact on the body. This, for example, relates to myocardial infarction, which can last several minutes and cause death.

Also, a dangerous complication of the pathological process is considered angina , referring to the most common pathology of hypertension. During an attack, stupid pains arise behind the sternum, with frequent vomiting and general malaise.

The development of IHD is facilitated by untimely diagnosis of the underlying disease and failure to comply with all the prescriptions of complex treatment. In addition, patients with a diagnosis of hypertension are at risk of developing coronary artery disease, which contributes to poor intake of coronary blood vessels, and the heart eventually lacks adequate nutrition.

Thus, in order to avoid the development of such complications, it is necessary to take seriously and responsibly the existing hypertension and consult a doctor in a timely manner.

Prophylaxis of essential hypertension

As a rule, two methods of prevention are used to prevent the development of hypertension: primary and secondary.

Primary prophylaxis is necessary for healthy people, in whom blood pressure does not exceed normal values.

All of the following health-improving measures of prevention will help to remain for a long time the pressure in the norm, and will also help to get rid of extra pounds and significantly improve your health.

The performance of any physical exercises only contributes to an increase in efficiency. This can be running, walking, swimming, exercising on simulators, respiratory and general development exercises, which have a noticeable antihypertensive effect. In addition, it is important to start classes with minor loads of thirty minutes a day, increasing them gradually.

An important preventive measure of hypertension is a low salt diet and a limited intake of animal fat. Therefore, you should consume not more than one teaspoon of salt per day, considering also that many products in its composition contain a sufficient amount of it (canned food, cheese, pickles, sausages, smoked products). In addition, the salt can be replaced with garlic or spices or on that salt, which contains a reduced amount of sodium.

It is also necessary to gradually remove from your diet fried foods, fat, sour cream, sausages, cheeses, butter, supplementing it with vegetables and fruits, vegetable oil and low-fat fish. And, of course, preference is best given to low-fat dairy products. Thus, you can normalize not only your weight, but also prevent the development of atherosclerosis, thereby controlling cholesterol in the blood. At the same time, the diet is enriched with potassium, which is so necessary at increased pressure.

Since stressful situations are the leading causes of elevated blood pressure, it is recommended to master the methods of psychological relief in the form of auto-training, self-hypnosis and meditation. An important moment remains the desire to find positive sides in almost everything, enjoy life, be tolerant of the shortcomings of others, change one's character for the better, look at any situation with optimism, try to be balanced. In addition, hobbies, communication with animals, walking helps in maintaining mental balance.

In the presence of such harmful habits, like smoking and drinking, it is simply urgent to abandon their harmful effects. After all, they and hypertensive disease - this is a terrible mix that can lead even to a fatal outcome.

But if the hypertensive disease was diagnosed, then not only primary preventive measures, but also secondary ones are used. Their main task is to protect target organs from negative consequences and development of possible complications, such as ischemic heart disease, cerebral hemorrhage and heart attack.

In addition, it is important to adhere to the previously mentioned diet, it is necessary to normalize sleep with observance of the regime of the day. You can perform breathing exercises, use massage, acupuncture, acupuncture, reflexology, taking vitamins, restorative herbs and antioxidants. And, of course, daily at certain hours to measure blood pressure and record its results for monitoring from your doctor.