Genital candidiasis (urogenital candidiasis) is a fungal disease that affects the vaginal part of the cervix, the mucous membrane of the vagina and often spreads to the vulva. In most cases, genital candidiasis causes yeast-like fungi Candida albicans, related to conditionally pathogenic flora (due to the fact that they are often permanent residents of the mucous membranes of the vagina, intestines and mouth). The main way to transfer genital candidiasis are direct sex
Genital candidiasis causes
The development of this disease contributes to all sorts of factors that reduce the body's resistance to infection. ) и хронических генитальных (хронич. сальпингоофорит и пр.) заболеваниях. Quite often candidiasis develops against the background of metabolic disorders, vitamin metabolism, hormonal imbalance, as well as extragenital (chronic pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, systemic connective tissue diseases, tuberculosis ) and chronic genital diseases (chronic salpingoophoritis, etc.). Also, factors that contribute to the development of genital candidiasis include:
- The intake of corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, broad-spectrum antibiotics, oral contraceptives
- The last three months of pregnancy (due to changes in the hormonal background)
- Intrauterine device contraception
- HIV infection and diabetes mellitus
In women with this disease affects the external genitalia and the vagina, and in men - the foreskin and glans penis
Genital Candidiasis Symptoms
In women, this disease is manifested by itching and burning in the area of the external genitalia, pain during sexual intercourse, white curdled discharge from the vagina and pain when urinating.
In men, genital candidiasis is manifested by itching and burning in the foreskin and glans penis, white on the glans penis, redness of the foreskin and glans penis, painful sensations when urinating and intercourse.
Urogenital candidiasis is divided into three clinical forms: candidosis, acute urogenital candidiasis and recurrent (chronic) urogenital candidiasis.
The acute form of urogenital candidiasis is manifested by a characteristic pronounced inflammatory reaction: edema, hyperemia, rashes in the form of vesicles on the mucous membranes and skin. The duration of the acute form of genital candidiasis does not exceed two months.
The chronic form of urogenital candidiasis is characterized by a longer duration (more than two months), while the secondary elements in the form of lichenization, infiltration and atrophy of tissues are observed on the mucous membranes and skin.
Also there are primary - erased forms of genital candidiasis, in which the symptoms are expressed quite insignificantly (discharge and itching are very weak, practically not disturbing). In such cases, almost no one comes to the doctor and the disease is discovered by accident.
Diagnosis of urogenital candidiasis is not particularly difficult and is based on visual examination data and patient complaints. To establish a more accurate diagnosis, Candida detection is performed with a smear microscopy, as well as when sowing onto nutrient media of a pathological discharge
Genital Candidiasis Treatment
To treat this disease, antifungal drugs are used, divided into the following groups:
- Imidazoles (isoconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, bifonazole, econazole, thioconazole, oxyconazole, ketoconazole)
- Polyene (levorin, nystatin, natamycilin)
- Allylamines (terbinafine)
- Triazoles (itraconazole, fluconazole)
- Preparations of various chemical groups (cyclopyrox, griseofulvin, chloronitrophenol, flucytosine, etc.)
In addition, combined preparations are used for the therapy of genital candidiasis (Clion D, Polizhinaks, Neo - pentotrans, Candide B, Terzhinan, McMiore - complex).
Ten days after the end of the course of treatment, a control bacteriological or / and microscopic examination is necessary.
In genital candidiasis, the examination of the sexual partner must be carried out without fail (treatment is appointed according to the results of the survey). In the absence of clinical signs of the disease, treatment is optional.