Dermatitis in infants
Dermatitis in infants has a definition as a group of inflammatory reactions. These reactions arise as a result of exposure to the skin of the child of various stimuli in conditions of increased sensitization of the baby's body to all sorts of irritating substances. Dermatitis in the baby is characterized by rashes on the skin of a different nature and with different localization of the inflammatory process. It can be localized on the face of the baby, in various areas of the body, on the hands. Dermatitis in infants is divided into several varieties: diaper, allergic, seborrheic, atopic, contact dermatitis in infants.
Dermatitis in infants
The baby can have a lot of reasons for the occurrence of dermatitis. The result of successful treatment of dermatitis is precisely the established cause of its occurrence.
Dermatitis in the baby can be caused by several reasons: a long stay in the diaper, incorrectly matched diaper, high humidity and temperature in the room, the genetic predispositions of the baby to dermatitis, unbalanced nutrition, non-hygiene, etc. For example, if at least one of the parents has any allergies ( bronchial asthma or food allergy), then the child is 50% susceptible to dermatitis of various origins, be it of an allergic nature, or simple dermatitis from external factors. Hence, the skin of a baby from such a parent is more susceptible to external factors and irritants from its environment.
Also, frequent infectious diseases of the mother during pregnancy ( pregnancy ) of the baby can provoke the development of various dermatitis in the baby. In addition, future mothers need to carefully monitor their health during pregnancy, so that later do not spend their precious time on trips to children's dermatologists and allergists. Also, the frequent intake of medication by a pregnant woman or child after birth (that is, in the first weeks of life, for example, with intra-neoplastic syndrome of newborns) can trigger the onset of infantile dermatitis.
Early feeding of the baby unadapted to his body products (citrus, chocolate, eggs, nuts), or individual intolerance of the baby from the birth of lactose, gluten, etc. will quickly develop dermatitis on the face of the baby in the first place (on the cheeks, near the mouth and near the ears), later on other parts of the body.
Contacting the baby with chemical household products (washing powder, dishwashing detergent, concentrated detergents, etc.) will cause severe forms of dermatitis on the hands, on the face, on other parts of the baby's body. So you need as far away as possible to hide such funds from those places where a curious kid who has just learned to crawl can get out.
Any dermatitis manifests itself as a rash with hyperemia and swelling of the skin in the lesions with dermatitis. They can be accompanied by itching, pain, all sorts of secondary infections can be attached, which leads to the formation of pustules and erosions on the skin.
Seborrheic dermatitis in the baby is the so-called "people" on the scalp, although it can spread to the face of the baby. These scabbards are a yellowish color, fatty crusts. The cause of these manifestations is the fungus of the family furfur Malassezia.
Crust (gneiss) may be accompanied by itching, but not in all cases of seborrheic dermatitis. If there is no treatment for seborrheic dermatitis, a secondary bacterial infection may join, so the timely treatment of this dermatitis is important.
Diaper dermatitis is also a type of dermatitis in infants. It is an inflammation of the skin in the area of inguinal folds, buttocks, lower abdomen. The cause of its occurrence is the long-term effect of feces and urine of the child on the skin, rubbing improperly matched or improperly clothed diapers, maintaining the skin of the baby in a constant moisture, not observing the hygiene of the baby.
Contact dermatitis in the infant is characterized by inflammation of the skin of the child in the area, which acts directly with the stimulus (permanent rubbing with suture from clothing, the use of a cream with irritating effect, contacting the skin with metallic objects). Signs of its manifestation are also numerous rashes in the area of contact with the irritant, which are accompanied by itching, wet crusts (which may occur when combing or attaching a secondary infection), anxiety, irritability and sleep disorders. It should be remembered that contact dermatitis in the baby can develop into a chronic form because of the constant or systematic influence of the stimulus on the baby's skin.
Atopic dermatitis in infants
Atopic dermatitis in the infant is considered to be one of the most common dermatoses with a chronic course of the disease in infants and older. Atopic dermatitis, a violation of the upper layer of the epidermis of the skin, which develops as a result of contact with a specific irritant. In almost 70% of cases, atopic dermatitis is manifested in the first weeks of life of the baby. Many moms and dads can confuse him with ordinary diathesis, besides listening to the "smart" grandmothers who went through fire, water and copper pipes. This fact is the main reason for the untimely and inattentive approach to this disease.
Unfortunately, atopic dermatitis is transmitted to the greatest degree hereditarily: from parents or close relatives who have a history of allergic dermatitis , neurodermatitis or urticaria . But often atopic dermatitis in the baby is passed on to the child from the mother.
The mental state of the baby is also directly related to the emergence or exacerbation of this form of dermatitis. Because emotional outbursts and loads significantly increase the production of allergens in the body, which much faster accelerate the factor of development of atopic dermatitis. The main culprits in the occurrence of this dermatitis are various allergens, which in recent times are very, very common. These include: epidermal, domestic, food, bacterial, fungal, etc.
The origin of the word "atopy" from Ancient Greek means, as the ability of the body to produce a huge amount of specific and general immunoglobulin. Because it happens that many babies are hostage to this type of dermatitis, which causes its development due to food allergies or reactions to medicines, in the first place, antibiotics.
Important food irritants of an allergic nature with great courage include: eggs, milk, honey, citrus, peanuts and wheat. Among the irritating factors can be attributed more enzymes that are part of a large number of flavors, perfumes, rinsers, etc. Parents of babies with this dermatitis need to be more careful about the choice of a particular product. On products of this kind (for example, cosmetics) should be indicated that it is hypoallergenic.
To the manifestations of atopic dermatitis include reddening of the skin on the cheeks, dry skin with signs of peeling, cracked skin in the area of redness, the formation of crusts in problem areas, itching, rash. The main manifestation is dermatitis on the face of the baby. Mostly on the cheeks. Such reddening on the face of babies can be complicated by the appearance of yellow crusts, peeling of seborrhoea on the eyebrows and on the head, lichenification, cracks and constant itching, which provokes the child to constantly rub the affected area. Also these rashes can be observed in the area of the forearms and under the knees. Atopic dermatitis can be accompanied by restless sleep and total body weight loss.
Treatment of atopic dermatitis in infants is reduced to achieving remission. For this you need to eliminate any irritating factors on the baby's body. An important stage in the treatment is considered to be a hypoallergenic diet. If the child is not yet receiving complementary food, then it is necessary to exclude allergenic foods from the ration of the nursing mother. You also need to pay attention to the clothes of the child. The onset of exacerbation of atopic dermatitis can provoke cotton and woolen fabrics.
Drug therapy consists of the use of local corticosteroid ointments: Lokoid, Advantan, Afloderm. Antihistamines are also prescribed. It is necessary to take into account the age of the child. If there are side effects from local hormone therapy with steroids, it is possible to prescribe anti-inflammatory creams: Elidel - this drug is not absorbed into the deep layers of the epidermis and can be used in infants, but under the strict supervision of a doctor. Antihistamines can be named: Suprastin, Tavegil, Claritin. These drugs reduce the manifestation of itching and irritation.
In no case should not engage in self-medication, as atopic dermatitis in the baby can join a secondary bacterial infection and lead to the development of complications with severe course.
Allergic dermatitis in infants
It is believed that allergic dermatitis in the infant develops because of a genetic predisposition to it and can manifest itself sufficiently at an early age (from the first days of life with lactose intolerance). This explains the inherent hypersensitivity and the presence of sensitization, with repeated contact with the allergen. That is why in the body of a baby, unfavorable and sometimes heavy changes can occur that can affect the entire immune system.
The manifestation of allergic dermatitis on the skin of a child is considered a response to the penetration of the allergen into the body. And if it is timely to limit its intake into the body, then the symptoms of dermatitis will pass independently in the shortest possible time. There is a close relationship between the development of this disease with the baby's intestinal tract and its liver, which because of their immaturity, can not very actively engage in cleansing the body of substances that can not be absorbed, thereby accumulating in it. They begin to acquire the properties of certain antigens that signal the immune system to produce antibodies. This chain begins to provoke the inflammatory process, which is manifested by rashes on the skin of the baby.
Often allergic dermatitis in the infant is crossed by food allergy. Therefore it is important to monitor his diet and start introducing complementary foods as late as possible to those kids who are addicted to such a disease as a food allergy .
The manifestations of allergic dermatitis in the baby are very specific: after the penetration of the allergen into the baby's body (for several hours, sometimes a few minutes) there is erythema , rashes on the skin in the form of specks, sores and cracks. All this is accompanied by itching, sometimes even intolerable, causing the baby to behave extremely uneasily. During periods of exacerbation, such itching can lead to the formation of wounds during combing.
Along with the above manifestations of allergic dermatitis, the skin becomes more edematous, it can occur microvesicles that contain a transparent liquid and papules. After a certain time, they are opened and form a moccasin, followed by drying in the form of crusts.
Treatment consists in determining the specific form of dermatitis. This is very important. Therefore, for diagnostics it is important to show the child to an allergist who can take samples in the form of injection methods or in the form of scrapings from affected areas. It is important to exclude the maximum number of foods that can cause allergies: chocolate, milk, eggs, gluten (bread), citrus, nuts, fish, pork, etc. This also applies to the nursing mother.
The doctor after the conducted tests can prescribe medication. The first thing is prescribed antihistamines (Supradin), anti-inflammatory ointments, less often glucocorticosteroids. Can also be used atopra emulsion, which does not contain any irritants and is well suited to infants to eliminate inflammation on the skin.
Dermatitis in infants
An important condition for curing dermatitis in infants is the exclusion of any irritating factors on the baby's skin. In the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis in infants it is important to carry out hygienic procedures, namely daily shampooing of the head with special shampoos and also mechanically remove seborrheic crusts (gneiss). At many children at the sixth month of a life such crusts can disappear independently. And in some cases, pediatricians can prescribe therapeutic shampoos (Kelurals DS), which can reduce inflammation on the scalp, the formation of gneiss, reduce the activity of the fungus, which is the culprit of seborrheic dermatitis. After washing with such a means, you need to apply special cream on the scalp: Bioderm Sensibio DS, Zinc Friederm, Saforel, etc. The duration of treatment for seborrheic dermatitis in infants is prescribed by a doctor, but, as a rule, does not exceed one month.
Diaper and contact dermatitis in infants are treated on the basis of the exclusion of wearing tight diapers, clothes. When diaper dermatitis is important, it is important to change diaper frequently, observe the hygiene of the inguinal area of the baby (washing after each baby toilet and after each change of diaper). It is important to arrange so-called air baths, which not only prevent these types of dermatitis, but also perfectly temper the child. After the hygiene of the baby, it is recommended to apply special moisturizing creams on the inguinal area: Bepantem, D-Panthenol, Topicrem. In general, ointments based on lanolin are well proven in the treatment of similar dermatitis. It is important to exclude any contact of the child with household products for cleaning and washing. And you need to ensure that the baby does not have contact with metal objects (keys, chains, etc.).
Treatment of any kind of dermatitis in the baby should be carried out under the strict supervision of a specialist. It is better that it is a dermatologist (a doctor of a narrow specialty) who can prescribe topical treatment with that or another kind of dermatitis. Self-treatment here is not relevant!