Cytomegalovirus - an infectious disease of the family of herpesviruses, the causative agent of which is the bacterium Cytomegalovirus Hominis. This disease affects people of both sexes and affects men on the tissue of the testicles and urethra, and in women on the cervix and the uterus
Infection with cytomegalovirus
Infection with cytomegalovirus occurs through the blood, saliva, mucus of the cervical canal and sperm. Newborns often get infected from infected mothers (every fourth pregnant woman is infected with cytomegalovirus) through breast milk or during the passage through the birth canal. There were recorded cases of infection of children in kindergartens from each other (usually through saliva). Adult people are infected with cytomegalovirus during kissing and sexual intercourse.
Due to the very wide spread, this infection can be transmitted in a variety of ways, but even so, it requires a long and very close contact with the infected person for its transmission. At the risk of infection with cytomegalovirus are pregnant women, people with compromised immune defenses and people suffering from recurrent herpes
In most cases, this disease is asymptomatic, without leaving the latent phase of development.
In some cases, in people with an adequate immune system, cytomegalovirus causes a mononucleosis-like syndrome that develops 20 to 60 days after infection and lasts two to six weeks. Mononucleosis-like syndrome is manifested by chills, high fever, rapid fatigue, headache and general malaise. Almost always this syndrome ends with complete recovery.
In people with weakened immune defenses (who underwent immunosuppressive and chemotherapy, HIV-infected), cytomegalovirus can cause severe complications (brain, eye, digestive system and lung damage), which in some cases can lead to death.
If fetal infection has occurred during pregnancy, a congenital cytomegalovirus infection can develop which often leads to central nervous system damage (hearing loss, developmental lag) and severe illnesses (internal hemorrhage, enlarged spleen, enlarged liver, jaundice). The child dies in the order of 25% of cases. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in most cases is observed in children whose mothers during pregnancy are infected with cytomegalovirus for the first time
Unfortunately, to date, cytomegalovirus infection is an incurable disease, but there are medications that can control the development of the virus in the human body, as well as control its number.
Treatment of cytomegalovirus in people with weakened immune defense is reduced to a prolonged intake of antiviral drugs (cidofovir, foscarnet, ganciclovir). With congenital cytomegalovirus infection or with mononucleosis-like syndrome, the effectiveness of antiviral therapy has not been proven. In the asymptomatic course of this infection, in people with normal immune defense in treatment there is no need.