Chirai is an acute process of inflammation of a purulent-necrotic nature, which begins at the very beginning of the hair follicle with a transition to the tissues surrounding it. With not quite correct treatment of chiria, inflammation may spread process on the tissue near the gland secreting the sebaceous secret in the adjacent to the zone.
Cigarettes are caused by ingress of the surface layer of the skin into the follicle of the hair of pathogenic organisms. These pathogens include a group of coccal microorganisms: staphylococcus aureus, less often staphylococcus aureus.
Chirai is most often defined as a rash of an inflammatory infiltrate, but there are also numerous formations of chiruses on the patient's body. The generalized distribution of chirals is called furunculum. In factors of development of chirya, a characteristic role is played by both local immunity of the skin of the skin, and the general response of the body's immunity. In addition, neglect of hygiene procedures can contribute to the emergence of chir.
Causes of Cause
Skin is considered a special organ. It performs a protective-barrier function, so all aggressive factors initially attack it. The area of the skin of an adult is about 2.5 meters. There are several layers in it. The epidermis is considered the outer layer of the skin, which consists of several layers of epithelial cells. The horny outer layer looks like a horny scales and is the first protective factor of the skin.
The dermis is located under the epidermis and consists of cells of connective tissue. Dermis is presented as a base for the epidermis, therefore, it contains a large number of blood vessels and nerve endings.
Fatty subcutaneous fat consists of cells of adipose tissue and performs the function of thermoregulation of the skin and the body as a whole. Mechanisms for protecting the skin are to maintain a specific level of acidic environment. Ph-level of the skin is from 3.5-7.5, which supports the vital activity of the normal composition of the microflora that lives on the surface of the skin. Microflora helps maintain local immunity on the skin. Also in the epidermis are certain cells, or as they are called, Langerhans cells. They are also considered a kind of protective function, producing lysozyme and interferon, which are killers for the pathogenic flora. To such pathogenic microflora and can concern a staphilococcus. In principle, staphylococci can be present on the surface of the skin in a normal ratio, as long as local immunity restrains their growth. With a decrease in the immune response, there is an intense multiplication of staphylococcus, which is provoked by the appearance of chiruses and other inflammatory processes on the skin surface.
It is worth remembering that the beginning of the boil takes from the inflammation of the follicle in the hair follicle with the subsequent spread to surrounding tissues. Sometimes, inflammation can be limited only in the follicle of the hair, then this process of inflammation is called a folliculitis.
Chiri are caused by staphylococcus aureus, which is considered the most dangerous of Staphylococcus strains. Less often, chiri can provoke other strains of the pathogen, but 95% reveal exactly Staphilococcus aur. or Staphylococcus aureus.
Provoking factors for the formation of chiropsy are: excessive sweating, since with a constant effect of sweat on the skin, a violation of the structure and protective mechanisms of the skin; microtrauma of the skin; contacting the skin with a purulent secretion from the nose or from the ears can provoke the development of chiri, for example, chirya on the lip. Also, non-compliance with the rules of body hygiene, for example, the emergence of internal scurfs on the back of the neck due to heavy dirt and friction about the collars of the shirt in this area.
In addition to the above, there is the role of other factors in the development of chiri. At a normal level of immunity, the body is rarely exposed to the introduction of infectious agents. But here to decrease in immunity can lead chronic foci with infection ( adenoids , tonsilitis, pharyngitis, bronchial asthma and bronchitis, frequent recurrence of pneumonia and sinusitis); immunodeficiency states (HIV, cancer); taking such drugs as immunosuppressants and cytotoxic drugs; overheating and hypothermia; inadequate and inadequate nutrition, beriberi.
Hormonal failures in the body are also provocative of the development of infectious processes on the skin, including chiri.
The development of chiri can occur as a complication of diabetes mellitus, especially if it occurs quite a long time. Diabetes leads to a violation of blood circulation in the capillaries, as a result of which the skin is not supplied with sufficient nutrients and oxygen. In the skin, processes of a dystrophic nature begin to occur, as a result of which a decrease in the protective properties of the skin is observed. Because of this, infectious pathogens penetrate the skin more easily.
Disturbances in the work of the adrenal glands also lead to the development of chiri. In the outer layer of the adrenal glands, glucocorticoids are produced, which, if exaggerated, help reduce the immune response in the body, reduce protective functions in the body; they also contribute to the excessive secretion of sebum accumulating on the skin and lumens of the sebaceous glands. Such clusters are considered a breeding ground for the propagation of pathogenic microorganisms.
In rare cases, hyperandogens can provoke the development of chiri, because with it the growth of hair follicles on the skin increases.
Chiray usually goes through certain stages of its development, for which its own symptomatic. Initially, in the area of the hair follicle develops a dense infiltrate of bright red color, which is accompanied by a minor pain syndrome and tingling. Gradually, the infiltrate increases in size and acquires a more intense painful character. The tissues surrounding it acquire puffiness.
A few days later, the next stage begins, in which the diameter of the chirie can reach three centimeters. A purulent-necrotic stem forms in the center of the chirp, which ends with a pustule on its surface. Moreover, the cheire itself takes the form of a cone, and the skin on its surface acquires a specific luster. In such a stage, an increase in body temperature of up to 38 degrees can be observed, the pain syndrome can be of a pulling nature. Also the patient can make complaints about general malaise and syndromes of intoxication.
Later, there is an autopsy of the pustule, purulent contents start to emerge from the chirie, sometimes with veins of blood. Emptying chirya ends with the passage of the necrotic plug. During this process, the patient notices a significant relief: a decrease in the puffiness of the skin, a reduction in pain syndrome and infiltration. On the spot of chirie a scar is formed for three days. The scar after chirya can acquire a white color, but in most cases, it remains invisible. The cycle of development of chirya is about 10 days.
Single chiri can occur in any area of the skin, excluding the area of the palms and soles, because there are no hair follicles. Often, chiri develop on the forearms, the back of the neck, the abdomen, buttocks, lower back and lower limbs. Intensive pain syndrome accompanied chiri external auditory meatus and eyelashes. But the development of chiria on the lip, in addition to the intense pain syndrome, is very dangerous because of the risk of development of thrombosis of the venous and lymphatic pathways with the development of the phlebitis of cerebral vessels and sepsis.
When larvae appear in the area of the lymph nodes, lymphangitis and lymphadenitis may develop. In cases of abnormal development of metastases that can spread to the liver, kidneys and other internal organs. The complications of chiri are most often observed because of its extrusion, incorrect local treatment or traumatism of the skin during shaving.
The baby's chicken is formed much faster, but with a more severe course of the process than in adults. Therefore, the child's chiri should be examined as soon as possible by a surgeon to determine the correct treatment tactics. If a child chiri arise with a special periodicity, then it is worth showing it to the gastroenterologist, because the contamination and the intestinal population of the pathogenic microflora in children can be accompanied by the formation of purulent inflammatory processes on the skin.
Internal chiri can have a more pronounced symptomatology and the formation of a more extensive stem with purulent contents.
Diagnosing chiri rarely makes it difficult for the surgeon. With the development of chirping under the arm, it is important to differentiate it with hydradenite . When chirya appears on the lip, it is important to determine the degree of diffusion of the purulent process on surrounding tissues, because such localizations of the cleavage may lead to severe complications.
Chicken eye is often called barley. His clinic is very specific, because as a boil on the eye occurs in the area of the upper eyelid. With its development, there is a marked swelling of the tissues with the formation of an infiltrate, which is accompanied by severe itching, pain syndrome. In some cases, conjunctivitis a - inflammation of the tear duct in the eye can be observed. Chirya on the eye in the people is called "sickness of dirty hands", because very often they arise when scratching the eyes with unwashed hands. They can also develop after hypothermia or as a complication of conjunctivitis.
Chicken on the pope
Chicken can occur in any area of the body, and when it appears in a part of the body that is subjected to constant friction or touch, it can lead to the suffering of the patient due to severe pain syndrome.
Chicken on the pope occurs quite often. Men are more prone to such localization of chiropa, due to excess hair in the gluteal region. Here it is necessary to note the fact that androgens play an essential role in the process of hair covering of the skin, and men in their physiological nature have an increased content of androgens in the body.
The reasons for the development of chiria on the pope can be called reduced immunity, non-compliance with hygiene rules, traumatism of the skin in this area of the body. Diabetes mellitus also plays a significant role not only in solitary rashes of chirya, but also in its multiple localizations on the body.
The increased activity of the sebaceous glands in the buttock area can also contribute to the development of purulent-inflammatory processes, including chiri.
When cheating on the priest, the patient complains of a pronounced pain syndrome. The patient can not find a comfortable position of the body when localizing the chir in such an area, because any position can bring quite a lot of pain. In addition to the pain syndrome, a boil on the pope can spread to deeper layers of the skin due to excessive traumatization. In this case, there may be an internal boil on the pope, which is characterized by deeper processes of soft tissue damage. The internal boil may visually resemble a small infiltrate with a micro-papule on its surface, and at the same time have an extensive inflammatory process in deeper layers of soft tissues.
The general condition of the patient also changes. Can join a fever, a state of chills, headaches . Also, such chiri can be complicated by phlegmon or sepsis. Therefore it is important to appear to a specialist as soon as possible when they arise. In no case can you try to open this boil alone or with the help of relatives. This is fraught with a greater risk of secondary infection. In the process of maturing chirya on the pope is not recommended to apply to the affected area Balsam Vishnevsky. Mistaken opinion that he helps to "draw" purulent contents. In fact, liniment on Vishnevsky's balm helps to purge purulent contents from chirya only after its opening. Until the papule formed on the surface of the chirp, any compresses are prohibited on the buttock area. After the formation of the papule, it is possible to apply a sterile gauze impregnated with ichthyol to the affected area. These ichthyol cakes very well contribute to the removal of infiltration in the surrounding tissues and maturation of chir at the pope.
It is also recommended to treat boils on the pope with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or take water procedures with its addition. Such procedures are necessary in the treatment and prevention of re-infection of the affected area.
After opening the clay on the pope and emptying the necrotic stem with purulent contents, a wound cavity remains on the buttock, which must be treated with antibacterial ointments.
Ointments when chewing on the pope can be a tetracycline group, and a complex of antibiotics. After treatment of the wound surface, compresses with antibacterial ointment are applied, which must be replaced every 3 hours. Such procedures are done with the most accurate and only sterile materials. In some cases, in the treatment of chelation on the priest may require hospitalization of the patient with a surgical opening and the appointment of antibiotics of a broad spectrum of action intramuscularly or intravenously. Also, the administration of anti-inflammatory drugs (sodium thiosulfate) may be prescribed to relieve congestion and swelling from the affected area. An obligatory condition in the treatment of cheery on the pope is the use of immunomodulators and physiotherapy.
As already known, the appearance of chiri occurs in those places that are covered with hair. The face also has a hair covering, which, in principle, on the entire skin surface has a thermoregulatory function. Skin on the face is much more tender than on the body, so her trauma can be more frequent.
The appearance of chiruses can be in any area of the face. There may be chiri on the lip, on the nose, on the eye, on the chin, etc.
The reasons for the development of chelation on the face are: skin contamination, reduction of local and general immunity, skin trauma (with shaving, combing, etc.), hypovitaminosis, diabetes, acne, blood diseases, sinusitis, sinusitis, otitis.
In addition to the reasons that caused the formation of chelation on the face, you should know that such localization of the chirie can lead to very serious complications in the form of meningitis and meningoencephalitis, sepsis, in extreme cases, to the death of the patient. Therefore, in no case can you try to open the boil on your face yourself.
When the pathogen is introduced into the hair follicle on the skin of the face, the painful compaction develops insignificantly. After a few days, the densification begins to increase in size, but on the surface of the skin it can be presented as a small pimple, which may mislead the patient. Thus, the patient can try to open the boil on his own, thereby aggravating its course.
With the further development of the cleavage on the face, the purge cavity is filled with purulent contents with the formation of a necrotic core. The skin around the cheary inflames, leading to an intense pain syndrome of a pulsating nature. After a few days, this boil can be opened by itself with the release of a large amount of purulent contents and the departure of the necrotic core. The patient feels a significant improvement in the condition during the autopsy.
If a chelation occurs on the face, you should contact the maxillofacial surgeon. He can correctly choose the tactics of treatment and determine the area and area of the lesion. Chiropsy is opened by means of surgical intervention, followed by draining the wound cavity and applying compresses with antiseptic medicines. In complicated cases, it may be necessary to use systemic antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action. As a rule, such antibiotics are taken orally (Ciprofloxacin, Azithromycin, Doxycycline, Vilprafen, Clacid, etc.) for at least 5 days. They give a good antibacterial effect. Also, a good effect in the treatment of scours on the face is given by compresses with ichthyol ointment and balsam limiter according to Vishnevsky. It may be recommended to rinse the wound surface after opening the chisel with antiseptic solutions: Chloksidin, Furatsillin, Miramistin, potassium permanganate, etc.
If there is a group rash on the face or frequent relapses, they can resort to blood transfusion, plasmapheresis, UFO blood, which are accompanied by a comprehensive examination of the patient's body.
Prevention facial cleansing is to observe the rules of skin hygiene and avoid traumatism of the skin.
When there is a chirja on the eye, it is worth talking about the occurrence of barley.
Chicken eye often develops after hypothermia or a sharp decrease in immunity, as well as a complication of inflammation of the conjunctiva (tear duct). The disease develops quickly and acutely. Localized on the eye, mainly in the upper eyelid due to the large number of eyelashes on it. It begins with puffiness and hyperemia of the century, later develops an infiltrate and forms a rod with pus. The process of chirping takes about a week. At its occurrence also it is not necessary to be engaged in a selftreatment, and to address to the ophthalmologist for consultation and to the surgeon behind treatment.
Chicken on the leg
Chicken on the leg is more often observed in the male population, since they have a large amount of hair covering for physiological reasons. Chicken on the leg can deliver a lot of unpleasant and painful feelings to the patient. The causes of chirie on the leg, as well as any other infectious processes on the leg, can be diabetes and autoimmune diseases. It is established that in men who smoke, the appearance of chiruses on legs is more often observed. Women, especially those who are overweight, may also be prone to the development of foot chit.
The localization of chiriya can be in any part of the leg. During puberty, young girls and boys can make complaints about chiri in the area of the thigh and lower legs. During this period, young people are very susceptible to hormonal changes, so at this age (13-16 years) they often have hyperandrogenia. Such a condition often leads to an increase in the work of sweat and / or sebaceous glands, as well as to increased growth of the hair cover throughout the body. Sebaceous glands, because of their activity, produce a large amount of secret that creates an oily film on the skin surface, which in turn disrupts the respiratory function of the skin, leads to its contamination and promotes the development of pathogenic microflora on its surface.
Chicken begins with the formation of a small compaction with hyperemia along its edges, local hyperthermia and swelling of the skin can be observed. The general condition of the patient does not change until the infiltration begins to increase in size and develop a purulent stem. In the course of such a process, the patient's condition can be accompanied by an increased body temperature, pain in the leg can be observed while walking or when changing its position, there are phenomena of intoxication (headaches, weakness, chills and pallor of the skin). With extensive areas of damage or with multiple footsteps, the patient's condition can reach severe, accompanied by intense pain.
Treatment should consist in operative opening of a cleavage in the conditions of a hospital or, at uncomplicated cheery, in conditions of an out-patient department.
Opening chirya performed under local anesthesia followed by drainage of the purulent focus. Further, the patient should visit the dressing room in order to treat the wound surface with antiseptics and apply antibacterial bandages.
Cure the cure
It should be noted immediately that when there is a chiri it is absolutely unacceptable to engage in self-medication. The treatment of chirry depends on the stage of its development, localization and complications. When the infiltrate is formed, UVA can be used in erythematous doses, in connection with the application of which the regression of the infiltrate and complete cure can occur.
In the process of maturing chirya, it is recommended to cut the infiltration zone with antibacterial drugs on novocaine. Antibiotics are selected taking into account the sensitivity of the pathogen to them. Antibacterial drugs can be presented as groups of penicillins, cephalosporins, gentamicin, tetracycline group and levomycetin.
To the penicillin group of antibiotics include: Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Amoxiclav. This group of antibiotics is obsolete and not very effective in treating staphylococcal infection, although in some cases, they can be effective.
The cephalosporin group of antibiotics include: Cefazolin, Ceftriaxone, Cefuroxime, Cefotaxime. These drugs are relatively more effective than penicillins. They are used in the form of powders and injections, are relatively inexpensive. Gentamicin is considered a very effective antibiotic, but has a number of specific contraindications: kidney disease, liver, childhood, pregnancy , digestive tract diseases, cardiovascular diseases.
The group of tetracyclines has proven itself in the therapy of chiruses and other infectious processes on the skin. Levomycetin in the form of an ointment is convenient to use in the treatment of chiri.
Local treatment of chiruses is the use of ichthyol. A dense layer of ichthyol is applied to the area struck by the chirp and covered with a thick layer of sterile gauze. Also, sodium salicylic acid or salicylic acid can be used, which is superimposed on the surface of the chirp by a thick layer and fixed with a bandage. Thanks to such treatment methods, a purulent stem is formed in the center of the compaction after 24 hours, followed by rejection.
After opening the scab, the wound surface is well treated with hydrogen peroxide or Furacillin, and a compress is applied with a solution of hypertonic sodium chloride. Dressings are made every day until the wound is completely emptied. Removal of the purulent stem by forceps is allowed only in those cases when it has separated from the infiltrate, because removal in the early period of the separation of the stem can provoke an aggravation of the infectious process. Also, to prevent an exacerbation before changing the bandage, the affected area is treated with 70% alcohol, green diamond, blue methylene. Skin with chirp should be wiped from the edges to the center, so as not to spread the pathogens from the focus of inflammation to healthy tissues. On the treated wound cavity impose bandages with ointments: Shintomitsinovaja an emulsion of 5%, furatsillinovaja 1%, Streptotsidnaja 5%. To reduce the healing time, physiotherapy is used: quartz to the affected area, sollyx and UHF.
If there is a chirie on the lip, in the ear canal, on the nose or on the eye, hospitalization of the patient in a hospital is recommended. In the hospital prescribe the use of desensitizing agents, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibacterial drugs, for example, Penicillin 300,000 units every three hours, the diet regime - fractional.
Chiray how to heal
The first thing that one should know when treating chirps is that they have the ability to spread their process to surrounding healthy tissues. Sometimes self-healing chirya, but only with a small amount of it, can be observed.
To help the rapid maturation of chiri can help receptions of hot baths with a solution of potassium permanganate. Baths should be taken several times a day. If the boil is localized on the leg or on the arm, then you can use the baths with the addition of potassium permanganate. If there is no possibility to take a shower or a bath, then it is possible to use the application of hot compresses on the area with chirim moistened in a solution of potassium permanganate. Apply compresses for at least half an hour and repeat at least three times a day. Such methods very well contribute to the rapid maturation of chirya. It is worth noting that the adoption of hot water baths is prohibited when the stem in the chirp, because it can provoke the spread of purulent contents into deeper layers of soft tissues.
In no way should you squeeze out the boil, even if a papule with a purulent stem appeared, because extrusion can lead to the remains of the rod in the wound cavity. Good home methods of treating chiria to accelerate its maturation. Composing compresses in such cases can help soften the skin in the affected area and improve the outflow of pus from the cavity.
One of the most effective methods of treating chir at home is the use of onions and garlic. You can make juice from these two products in equal proportions and apply compresses with it on the boil. Also, it is recommended to cut the bulb into several pieces and bake it in the oven until it is ready, then apply it on the area with chir. Keep the onion on the affected area until the pus begins to break out. Compresses are replaced every two hours.
The use of parsley is also very effective in treating chir. The leaves of parsley are poured with boiling water and applied in the form of a compress on the area with chirium. You can also boil one egg, separate the protein from the yolk and apply it on the boil, then cover it with sterile gauze.
Use also milk in the treatment of chiri. Take one glass of milk, add 3 tsp to it. salt to prevent its coagulation and heated in a water bath for 15 minutes. Then add bread crumbs or rye flour to the milk until a thick mass is obtained. Apply it to a bandage sterile and apply to the area with chir for 30 minutes. Do not forget to treat the skin in the area of purulent purge from the chirie, due to the use of such a mass.
You can use ground nutmeg, which is taken one teaspoonful of tea and poured 250 ml of boiling water. Insist for about 20 minutes and take inwards in a warm form to improve blood circulation, which helps to accelerate the maturation of chir.
Chicken can occur due to intestinal dysbacteriosis , so the use of Tryphal as a method for cleaning the intestine from pathogenic microflora will be useful. It is consumed 2 tablets an hour before sleep, washed down with a glass of boiled water. The use of eubiotics (Hilak Forte, Bifiform, Lineks, etc.) also has a positive effect in normalizing the intestinal microflora. The use of group C vitamins and macronutrients strengthen immunity, and vitamin C itself is considered a good tool for strengthening blood vessels and capillaries.
Traditional methods of treating chiria can also give a positive effect without surgery.
It helps in the treatment of chirya cakes of rye flour, butter and milk. Compress with it can be applied to the affected area and left overnight. This method contributes to the rejection of purulent contents. Compresses with wheat and barley flour, crushed wheat are also used.
You can take a small piece of bread, moisten it in olive oil and attach to the boil, fixing the top with a bandage. Still apply: saffron with wax and chopped incense; rose oil with pinya resin and lard; flaxseed with an alteum; dry fig with flour. Apply such ingredients in equal proportions in the form of compresses. A good method is also a cress seeded with a resin of a terpentine tree.
The opening of the chirie can be facilitated by a compress made of honey and narcissus root, dirt from the hives of bees with dry pitch of pine. It is also possible to prepare a patch made from the resin of fresh pineapple and honey anacarium, which is taken in equal proportions, heated on low heat and after it is cooled applied on the area affected by the twilight for 12 hours.
A good potent remedy is quicklime and potash, which are put in water in a proportion of 1: 3. After the water is poured, pre-boiling it, and put it again, lime and potash. Water is poured into copper utensils and placed on hot coals. The water begins to thicken and turns into salt. This salt is taken in small amounts, mixed with ammonia and mucus seed kressa, as well as with a small amount of honey anadventure. Apply the resulting mixture to a sterile bandage and apply to the scum. The dressing is held for about half an hour, then rinsed with running water and treated with a solution of potassium permanganate. The procedure is repeated several times a day.
It is possible to use a mixture of three parts of limonent of balsam according to Vishnevsky and seven parts of oil from fir. Apply the resulting composition to a sterile gauze and apply to the affected area, top cover with compress paper and fix with a bandage. The compress is changed three times a day. Applying a dressing with a root of bleached helps to clean the wound cavity after the opening of the chir.
Such methods are prohibited in the treatment of chir in the child, as well as in people with deep chirjami and internal chirjami. In addition to folk medicine, phytotherapy and alternative treatments for cheery, one must remember about the prevention of this inflammatory process.
Prevention of the appearance of scissors on the skin consists in observing the rules of personal hygiene, maintaining a normal level of local and general immunity, timely access to a specialist in the event of recurrence of chir and the therapy of chronic foci with infection.