Bronchial asthma is a serious recurrent inflammatory disease of the human respiratory system, manifested by sudden attacks of suffocation, a feeling of lack of air, recurrent episodes of wheezing wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath. Bronchial asthma is observed in both children and adults and is one of the most common modern diseases (from 4 to 10% of the population)
Bronchial asthma causes
It was found that in the vast majority of recorded cases bronchial asthma develops due to hypersensitivity to various stimuli.
Bronchial asthma can be directly related to both environmental factors (frequent infection of the respiratory tract and various allergic factors), and hereditary predisposition.
An attack of bronchial asthma can be caused by the following factors:
- Irritants in the environment: tobacco smoke, perfume, sprays, exhaust fumes
- Bacterial and viral infections: sinusitis, colds, bronchitis, influenza
- Allergens: spores, pollen, mites, dust, animal hair, food
- Medications: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetylsalicylic acid
- Intensive physical activity (often in cold rooms)
- Various stressful situations: unrest, fear, and so on.
Important factor in the development of bronchial asthma is the climatic factor: height above sea level, soil and climate. It was noted that the movement of air masses, low clouds or cyclones three times increase the likelihood of developing bronchial asthma, compared with the finding in normal climatic conditions. It should also be noted that the occurrence of asthma in almost 90% of cases contributes to clay soil
Bronchial asthma symptoms
Although bronchial asthma is a fairly common disease, its symptoms vary from person to person. In most patients, the first symptomatology occurs even at an early age (up to 10 years), and in 30% of patients up to 40 years.
Age intervals and incidence of bronchial asthma:
- Up to ten years - about 35%
- From ten to twenty years - about 15%
- From twenty to forty years - about 10%
- From forty to fifty years - about 10%
- From fifty to sixty years - about 7%
- After sixty years - about 3%
The clinical picture of bronchial asthma is characterized by symptoms such as cough and breathing disorder in the form of dyspnea. This symptomatology arises after direct contact with the allergen, which is of no small importance in diagnosis. In addition, there is a seasonal variability of symptoms and diagnosed in relatives of bronchial asthma or other atopic diseases.
In the case of combination with rhinitis, the pronounced symptoms of bronchial asthma can both be observed continuously with seasonal exacerbations, and appear only at certain times of the year. In some patients, the seasonal development of exacerbations is caused by an increase in the air level of some aeroallergens (pollen ragweed, birch, various herbs, etc.). In addition, the above symptoms can develop after physical exertion (asthma of physical stress), or when contacting a person with various non-specific substances (harsh odors, gases, smoke).
The attack of suffocation is the most typical sign of bronchial asthma. During an attack, the patient sits in the forced position, where breathing is performed with the help of the auxiliary musculature of the abdominal press, the shoulder girdle and the thorax. When protracted attacks often there are significant pain in the lower part of the chest, which is due to the intense work of the diaphragm. The attack of the attack is often preceded by aura of attack, which is manifested by rhinitis, coughing, sneezing, urticaria . Immediately, the attack of asthma can accompany a cough with the separation of a small amount of vitreous sputum. Immediately after coughing, the number of wheezing rises (both on exhalation and inhalation). As the sputum retreats, rales shrink and breathing becomes more severe. During periods of exacerbation marks tachycardia, drowsiness, cyanosis , difficulty in communicating. Due to the increase in pulmonary volumes, the thorax is swollen. During periods between attacks, patients may completely lack any signs of the disease.
There are such cases of bronchial asthma, when the clinical picture is limited to only a cough. This kind of asthma is called cough. Most often it is common in children, and the symptoms are noted usually at night. The cough variant of bronchial asthma must necessarily be differentiated with eosinophilic bronchitis.
In some patients, the only provoking factor in the development of an attack of bronchial asthma is physical activity (bronchial asthma of physical stress). Most often, the attack develops after a short time (5-10 minutes) after the termination of exercise. During physical activity, seizures are extremely rare. Sometimes patients note a prolonged cough, self-passing for 35 to 45 minutes. In most cases, attacks are provoked by running, and the determining factor in their development is inhaled cold dry air
Bronchial asthma diagnosis
Diagnosis of bronchial asthma is based on the following key points:
- History of the development of the disease, characteristic of the disease complaints (dry cough, shortness of breath)
- The presence of concomitant clinical manifestations (forced body position, expiratory nature of dyspnea)
- Studies of the function of external respiration for obstructive changes
- Clinical examination data (wheezing in the lungs, quickening of breathing and pulse)
- Presence in the bronchial secretion or sputum of eosinophils
- Positive results of allergic test
Bronchial asthma treatment
For the treatment of bronchial asthma, urgent medical measures aimed at restoring impaired normal bronchial patency are shown. Patients need to know the following points:
- Thinening phlegm and expectorant drugs are a very important component of the treatment of bronchial asthma. They can be used both in the form of tablets (acetylcysteine, ambrohexal, bromhexine), and in the form of infusions and decoctions of medicinal herbs
- If the patient is diagnosed with atopic bronchial asthma associated with allergies to house dust , pollen of plants and spores of fungi, very good results are achieved due to the so-called specific hyposensitization, which blocks pathological immunological reactions. This type of treatment involves injecting into the patient's body microscopic doses of an allergen according to a certain scheme. After a course of injections in many patients, asthma attacks may completely disappear for several years
- In the case of confirmed "aspirin" asthma, it is shown that a specially designed scheme of scanty doses of aspirin, which often reduces the sensitivity to the drug and improves the course of the disease
In addition to medicinal products, there are many non-drug therapies for bronchial asthma, they include various methods of physiotherapy (ultraviolet irradiation, amplipulse, ultrasound, inductothermy, electrophoresis), ultraviolet or laser irradiation of blood, hyperbaric oxygenation, as well as innovative methods such as plasmacytopheresis, plasmapheresis and hemosorption .
In addition to all the above mentioned, special breathing techniques, reflexotherapy and psychotherapy are widely used on an outpatient basis.