Blepharospasm is a spastic symmetrical contraction of the circular eye muscles. Distinguish between tonic and clonic blepharospasm.
Tonic B. - spasm of the circular muscles of the eyes, accompanied by a steady squeeze, the duration of which can be several hours or several weeks; and is divided into the essential and the reflex.
, травматическим неврозом и пр. Essential tonic B. in most cases is observed in women and is often due to hysteria , traumatic neurosis, etc.
Reflex tonic B. arises as a result of a prolonged irritant effect on the trigeminal nerve receptors in various ophthalmic diseases, with diseases of the nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses or teeth.
Clonic B. is manifested by rapid tick closure of the eyelids, involuntary rapid flashing or delayed opening and closing of the eyelids. This type of blepharospasm may be an element of generalized hyperkinesis in tannic epilepsy, small chorea, Tourette's syndrome, tetanus, or pathology of the extrapyramidal system.
In young people, B. can appear and disappear quite suddenly, for no apparent reason, and have a favorable course. But in the elderly, B. has a progredient course with short-term minor improvements.
This disease can be accompanied by a violation of tear, maceration and edema of the eyelids, which are additional factors that increase the irritant effect on the branches of the trigeminal nerve.
When symptoms appear that indicate this disease, consultation of the neurologist and ophthalmologist is needed, which will assign the necessary diagnostics: a study of the rate of passage of the pulse along the fibers of the facial nerve, electromyography of the facial muscles or examination of the blinking reflex.
Treatment is aimed at eliminating the causes that caused irritation of the facial nerve. In clonic, or essential tonic B. treatment is carried out by a psychiatrist or neurologist, and with reflex tonic blepharospasm - dentist or oculist. Psychotropic, sedative agents, as well as drugs correcting microcirculation and metabolism in the Central Nervous System are indicated for use. Psychotherapy, reflexology and auto-training are also used.
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