Graves' disease

базедова болезнь фото Basedova disease - endocrine disease caused by increased activity of the thyroid gland, characterized by increased reactivity of the nervous system, increased tissue metabolism, an increase in the thyroid gland (goiter), overproduction of the thyroid hormone and numerous changes in all body systems.

Basedova disease usually begins to manifest itself in the age interval between thirty and forty years, and most often people who have a family history of thyroid abnormalities are ill. Among all known diseases of the thyroid gland, Bazedova's disease is firmly in second place after hypothyroidism, the incidence rate is 1 case per 100 people (more common in women)

Basould's disease - causes

The characteristic appearance of a person is familiar to many, but not all, perhaps, know that the development of this disease can occur due to the presence in the body of autoimmune processes. Autoimmune diseases are defects in the immune system, in which the body's own immune system produces agents whose action is directed at damaging and destroying its own cells. So, in the case of Based's disease, lymphocyte production of an abnormal protein stimulating the thyroid called "long-acting thyroid stimulant" is observed.

In addition, the causes of the disease may be as follows: hereditary predisposition, female sex, chronic foci of infection. Basedova disease often appears in people with diseases such as chronic tonsillitis , vitiligo , Addison's disease , diabetes , hypoparathyroidism . Also, goiter can develop as a result of various viral infections, or after using as a survey of radioactive iodine.

Despite all the above reasons, the etiology of Based's disease has not been studied sufficiently. A proven clinical fact is that the acute form of the disease develops as a result of a significant neuro-psychic shock. The first manifestation of symptoms or exacerbation of an already present illness is observed in connection with such diseases as influenza , chorea, acute tonsillitis, rheumatism. Other infections, in particular tuberculosis , lead to the development of Based's disease through toxic or specific thyroid damage.

However, despite this, for a significant part of the cases of Based's disease, the exact cause of development can not be established. The overwhelming majority of registered cases of the disease falls on the age interval from eighteen to forty years, and in women the disease is observed six times more often (scientists attribute this to the greater activity of female endocrine activity)

Basedova's disease - symptoms

Usually, Basedova's disease begins imperceptibly. A person is disturbed by mood swings, sleep disturbances, sweating, fussiness, trembling of limbs, palpitations. Most often, patients begin to lose weight, although in some cases, on the contrary, there is a set of body weight. The skin becomes darker, dense edema appears in the area of ​​the legs. The thyroid gland is constantly increasing, it is painless and dense. Hyperfunction of the thyroid gland affects the adequate activity of all organs and systems of the body, namely the following symptoms are observed:

• Organs of vision - the eyes are wide open (exophthalmos), convex, glisten, enlarged; eyelids are edematic, a white band appears over the pupil when looking down. The blood supply to the eyeball is disturbed, which often causes damage to the optic nerve and conjunctivitis . All this contributes to a significant reduction in vision, and in some cases, the appearance of blindness

• Cardiovascular system - heart rhythm is broken, blood pressure rises, paroxysmal heart pains

• Central nervous system - anxiety, dizziness , insomnia, headache

• Digestive system - a violation of the liver, diarrhea , nausea (rarely vomiting), increased motor GI tract

• Exchange processes - the risk of developing diabetes is increased, carbohydrate metabolism is disrupted

• Endocrine system - the production of hormones of the adrenal cortex is reduced, the work of the sexual glands is disrupted (in men in the form of impotence, in women - infertility and menstrual irregularity)

Degrees of course of the disease:

→ Easy degree. Usually occurs imperceptibly, the patient's condition is satisfactory, the heart rate in the region of one hundred beats per minute, the body weight deficit is not more than 10%

→ The average degree. Increases blood pressure, heart rate more than a hundred beats per minute, a body mass deficit of about 20%

→ Severe degree of Bazed disease. There are numerous lesions on the part of other systems and organs, the heart rate exceeds one hundred and twenty beats per minute, the body mass deficit is more than 20%. Severely ill people, even in complete rest, absorb 80% more oxygen than healthy people of the same weight, height, sex and age.

Diagnosis of Based's disease most often does not cause difficulties. Recognition of the disease occurs on the basis of the following main symptoms: goitre , tremor, eyelashes and tachycardia (considered the most constant symptom of Based's disease). To confirm the diagnosis, radioisotope and ultrasound studies are carried out. In addition, to determine the concentration of thyroid hormones, an appropriate blood test

Basedova's disease - treatment

The choice of method of treatment is based on the causes of the disease, the size of the goiter, the age of the patient, the possibility of surgical intervention and the desire of a woman to have children in the future. Treatment for Based's disease can be carried out both medically and through surgery, during which a part of the thyroid gland is removed. However, the main method of treatment of Graves' disease is medication, at the initial stage of which high doses of cystic agents (mercazolil, propylthiouracil) are prescribed to suppress thyroid function. Despite the fact that the symptoms after taking medications disappear within a month and a half or two, treatment should be continued from six months to two years. To prevent side effects (faster heartbeats, etc.), many patients are prescribed an indenter simultaneously.

In case a woman is pregnant, to minimize the risk of developing a deficiency of thyroid hormones in the fetus, doses of medicines are prescribed minimal. Due to the fact that after delivery often there is a significant deterioration of the condition, young mothers should be under constant supervision. If the woman continues to receive the medication at the lowest dosage, subject to periodic testing of the thyroid function of the baby, she can continue to breast-feed the baby.

Another widely used method for treatment of Based's disease is a one-time oral intake of radioactive iodine 131. This method is preferable for those who do not plan to have children in the future.

If treatment with medicinal products does not give the desired result, surgical treatment is shown, which consists in removing part of the thyroid gland to reduce its ability to produce hormones. However, it is necessary to know that the cause of the disease does not eliminate surgical treatment.

As a result of Basid's disease, ophthalmopathy develops, the treatment of which is the use of large doses of corticosteroids or local drug treatment. With puerperal pressure on the optic nerve is seriously increasing, so in some cases, to relieve pressure may require surgical intervention or radiation therapy.

To remove the thyrotoxic crisis, drugs are used whose action is directed at suppressing the synthesis of thyroid hormones. As maintenance therapy, vitamins, nutrients, fluids and sedatives are prescribed.

During the treatment should be excluded the use of iodized salt and restrict the use of iodine-rich foods. Also during treatment it is forbidden to sunbathe, and then the course of treatment will be failed. Very often Basedova disease is transmitted through the female line, and usually through a generation (grandmother - granddaughter).

The prognosis of the disease is not very consoling. In the case of a lightly worn out form, the disease can last for dozens of years without causing any significant changes in the patient's condition. But in the case of the acute course of the Basidic disease, lethality reaches 30%. Most often, the disease is benign, although the working capacity of patients is significantly reduced, which is associated with inadequate blood circulation, nervous system condition, etc. The main cause of death is depletion from diarrhea, vomiting, fever, other toxic symptoms and heart failure.

Prophylaxis of Based's disease consists in elimination of severe nervous shocks, timely treatment of viral infections, control of lifestyle. Also, it is necessary to take with caution the potassium iodide, since even in conventional therapeutic anti-sclerotic dosages it can be caused by predisposed people to cause Buzedov's disease