Ampicillin: instructions for use
Please note that before buying Ampicillin, you should carefully read the instructions for use, the methods of application and dosage, as well as other useful information about Ampicillin. On the site "Encyclopaedia of Diseases" you will find all the necessary information: instructions for proper use, recommended dosage, contraindications, as well as reviews of patients who have already used this medication.
Ampicillin - Composition and form of release
Ampicillin tablets: 1 tablet contains ampicillin (in the form of trihydrate) 250 mg;
10, 20, 24 pcs. packaged.
Ampicillin powder for solution for injection:
1 bottle contains ampicillin (in the form of sodium salt) 0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 g;
1 bottle in a cardboard box.
Ampicillin powder for oral suspension:
5 ml of the finished suspension contains ampicillin (in the form of the sodium salt) 250 mg;
1 bottle - 5 grams in a cardboard box.
Absorption after ingestion - fast, high, bioavailability - 40%.
It is evenly distributed in the organs and tissues of the body, it is found in therapeutic concentrations in pleural, peritoneal, amniotic and synovial fluids, cerebrospinal fluid, contents of blisters, urine (high concentrations), intestinal mucosa, bones, gall bladder, lungs, female genital tract, bile , in a bronchial secretion (in the purulent bronchial secretion, the accumulation is weak), paranasal sinuses, middle ear fluid, saliva, fetal tissues.
Poor penetrates the blood-brain barrier (permeability increases with inflammation).
It is excreted mainly by the kidneys (70-80%), and in the urine very high concentrations of the unchanged antibiotic are created; partially with bile, in nursing mothers - with milk.
Do not cumulate. Removed during hemodialysis.
Ampicillin - Pharmacological action
Ampicillin is an antibiotic of a group of semisynthetic penicillins of broad spectrum that acts bactericidal by suppressing the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall.
It is active against Gram-positive aerobic bacteria: Staphylococcus spp. (with the exception of strains producing penicillinase), Streptococcus spp. (including Enterococcus spp.), Listeria monocytogenes; Gram-negative aerobic bacteria: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Bordetella pertussis, some strains of Haemophilus influenzae.
Destroyed by penicillinase. Acid-resistant.
Ampicillin - Indications for use
Infectious-inflammatory diseases caused by micro-organisms sensitive to ampicillin, including:
- respiratory tract infections (including bronchitis, pneumonia , lung abscess);
- infections of the ENT organs (including tonsillitis);
- bile duct infection (including cholecystitis, cholangitis);
- urinary tract infections (including pyelitis, pyelonephritis, cystitis );
- Gastrointestinal infections (including salmonellae);
- gynecological infections;
- skin and soft tissue infections;
- sepsis , septic endocarditis;
- face ;
- Gonorrhea .
Ampicillin - Method of administration and dose
Established individually, depending on the severity of the course, localization of infection and sensitivity of the pathogen.
When administered orally, a single dose for adults is 250-500 mg, the daily dose is 1-3 g. The maximum daily dose is 4 g.
For children, the drug is prescribed in a daily dose of 50-100 mg / kg, children weighing up to 20 kg - 12.5-25 mg / kg.
The daily dose is divided into 4 divided doses. The duration of treatment depends on the severity of the infection and the effectiveness of the treatment.
Tablets are taken orally regardless of food intake.
To prepare the suspension, 62 ml of distilled water are added to the powder vial. Dosage the finished suspension with a special spoon, which has 2 marks: the lower one corresponds to 2.5 ml (125 mg), the upper one - 5 ml (250 mg). Suspension should be washed with water.
When parenteral administration (in / m, iv / jet or intravenous drip), a single dose for adults is 250-500 mg, daily dose - 1-3 g; In severe infections, the daily dose can be increased to 10 g or more.
Newborn children are prescribed in a daily dose of 100 mg / kg, children of other age groups - 50 mg / kg. In severe infection, these doses can be doubled.
The daily dose is divided into 4-6 injections with an interval of 4-6 hours. The duration of the / m administration is 7-14 days. The duration of IV application is 5-7 days, with the subsequent transition (if necessary) to the / m introduction.
Solution for the / m introduction is prepared by adding to the contents of the bottle 2 ml of water for injection.
For intravenous administration of a single dose of the drug (not more than 2 g) is dissolved in 5-10 ml of water for injection or isotonic sodium chloride solution and injected slowly for 3-5 minutes (1-2 g for 10-15 minutes) . With a single dose exceeding 2 g, the drug is administered intravenously drip. To do this, a single dose of the drug (2-4 g) is dissolved in 7.5-15 ml of water for injection, then the resulting solution is added to 125-250 ml of isotonic sodium chloride solution or 5-10% glucose solution and injected at a rate of 60-80 cap. / min. When i / v drop introduction to children as a solvent used 5-10% glucose solution (30-50 ml, depending on age).
Solutions used immediately after cooking!
Ampicillin - Side effect
• On the part of the digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, stomatitis, pseudomembranous colitis, intestinal dysbiosis, increased activity of hepatic transaminases.
• Effects due to chemotherapeutic effect: candidiasis of the oral cavity, vaginal candidiasis .
Ampicillin - Contraindications
- hypersensitivity to antibiotics from the penicillin group and other beta-lactam antibiotics;
- pronounced violations of the liver (for parenteral use).
Ampicillin during pregnancy and lactation
It is possible to use the drug in pregnancy according to the indications in those cases when the benefit to the mother exceeds the potential risk for the fetus.
Ampicillin is excreted in breast milk in low concentrations. If you need to use the drug during lactation, you should decide whether to stop breastfeeding.
Ampicillin - Special instructions
With caution and against the background of the simultaneous use of desensitizing agents, a drug should be prescribed for bronchial asthma , hay fever and other allergic diseases.
In the process of applying Ampicillin, systematic monitoring of the kidneys, liver and peripheral blood pattern is necessary.
In case of liver failure, the drug should be used only under the control of liver function.
Patients with impaired renal function require correction of the dosing regimen depending on the CK.
When using the drug in high doses in patients with renal insufficiency, a toxic effect on the central nervous system is possible.
When the drug is used to treat sepsis, a bacteriolysis reaction (the Yarisch-Gerxheimer reaction) is possible.
When allergic reactions occur ampicillin, the drug should be discontinued and desensitizing therapy should be prescribed.
Weakened patients with prolonged use of the drug may develop superinfection caused by ampicillin resistant microorganisms.
To prevent the development of candidiasis concomitantly with Ampicillin, nystatin or levorin, as well as vitamins of group B and C, should be prescribed.
It manifests a toxic effect on the central nervous system (especially in patients with renal insufficiency).
Ampicillin - Drug Interactions
Probenecid with simultaneous application with Ampicillin reduces tubular secretion of ampicillin, as a result of which its concentration in the blood plasma increases and the risk of toxic effect increases.
With the simultaneous use of Ampicillin with allopurinol, the likelihood of a skin rash increases.
With simultaneous use with Ampicillin, the effectiveness of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives is reduced.
With simultaneous use with Ampicillin, the effectiveness of anticoagulants and antibiotics-aminoglycosides increases.
Analogues of Ampicillin
Structural analogues of the drug according to the active substance: Ampicillin AMP-KID; Ampicillin AMP-Forte; Ampicillin Innotek; Ampicillin sodium; Ampicillin-AKOS; Ampicillin-Ferein; Ampicillin sodium salt; Ampicillin sodium salt is sterile; Ampicillin trihydrate; Zetsil; Penodyl; Pentrexyl; Stendacillin.
Store in a dry place protected from light; tablets and powder for the preparation of suspension - at a temperature of 15 to 25 ° C, powder for the preparation of solution for injection - at a temperature of not more than 20 ° C.
Shelf life - 2 years. The prepared suspension should be stored in the refrigerator or at room temperature for not more than 8 days. Prepared solutions for in / m and / in the introduction of storage are not subject to.
We want to pay special attention to the fact that the description of the drug Ampicillin is presented for informational purposes only! For more accurate and detailed information about the drug Ampicillin, please refer exclusively to the manufacturer's annotation! Do not self-medicate! You should definitely consult a doctor before starting the drug!