Allergies in children
Allergies in children - the response of the baby's immune defense to any substance coming from the outside environment, which is perceived by the body as potentially harmful, and, therefore, triggering a protective response, which manifests itself as a cough, runny nose and a rash. According to most authoritative scientists in the field of allergology, the allergy is prone to be inherited, and if at least one of the biological parents of allergies, there is a very high probability that the immune system of the child will also fight with the same irritant.
The causes of allergies in children are very diverse, and many of them can persecute a person throughout life, such as: various chemicals, animals, poisonous insects (wasps, bees, ants), pollen of various plants, food, dust.
Manifestations of allergies become noticeable almost immediately after contact with an allergenically hazardous substance and are manifested by rash and reddening of the skin, inflammation of the mucous membranes, runny nose, sneezing, coughing, hay fever and cuts in the eyes. Occasionally, an allergy may even at an early age represent a real threat to life, for example, severe inflammation of the respiratory tract can lead to suffocation.
Allergy in infants requires special attention, since it is in children of such a small age that food allergy is most often observed, which can manifest until a certain period of life, after which it disappears on its own. A protective reaction organism can include a baby after taking various fruits and vegetables, red food, etc. That is why the mother who is breastfed after the birth of the baby is assigned the strictest diet, which consists exclusively of hypoallergenic products.
The main symptoms of allergy in children are various inflammatory processes of the skin: itching, rashes, peeling and redness of the skin. Sometimes the allergy in infants is manifested by intestinal disorders, bloating and stool disorders.
To date, the pharmaceutical market provides a fairly wide range of antihistamines, whose action is aimed at eliminating allergic reactions in children. Usually they are applied sporadically, i.e. in the case of the appearance of a protective reaction of the body to a certain stimulus. However, the best treatment option is to exclude a baby from contact with a provoking allergen. Medicamental treatment of allergies in children (immunotherapy) consists in the constant introduction of gradually increasing doses of the detected antigens. This treatment is very long and can take several years, but in almost a hundred percent of cases it helps to get rid of the allergy to a particular stimulus
Food allergies in children
Due to a wide range of food allergens, food allergy in children is widespread, and a variety of clinical manifestations only make it difficult to detect a particular allergen. Almost any food product can cause a response allergic reaction.
Symptoms of food allergies in newborns are often enough, as food allergens in the baby's body fall into the mother's milk, in case of violation of her hypoallergenic diet. Often, food allergy in children in the first few years of life develops after their transfer to various substitutes for mother's milk, and the earlier a baby is weaned and transferred to a mixture, the higher the chances of developing an allergic reaction. In more than 90% of children of the first year of life, intolerance to cow's milk protein is observed.
The list of foods most often causing food allergy in children: fish, citrus, honey, mushrooms, nuts, eggs. Rarely allergic reactions are observed in apricots, various berries, legumes, tomatoes, pomegranates, peaches, beets, carrots and all kinds of seasonings. Even more rarely there is an allergy to cheeses, zucchini, plums, buckwheat, pumpkin and potatoes.
Symptoms of food allergy in children are usually manifested by severe itchy skin, abundant sweating, the appearance of blisters on the reddened skin and rash. In everyday life, these manifestations are called allergic diathesis . Fortunately, such a severe manifestation of an allergic reaction as Quincke's edema can rarely develop, which manifests itself as a strong swelling of the subcutaneous tissue, mucous membranes and skin and can, in case of failure to provide timely honey. help to lead to a lethal outcome. In case of involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the allergy is accompanied by pains in the abdomen, constipation or loose stool, colic and vomiting. Occasionally, respiratory disorders may occur in the form of bronchospasm and runny nose.
The most reliable way to exclude a child from the above-described symptoms is the complete elimination of allergen products from the diet. Due to the fact that it is usually difficult to identify the cause of allergies immediately, the most likely allergenic products should be excluded from nutrition in the first place. Children of the first year of life in this case should be transferred to a special hypoallergenic mixture
Allergy on the face of the child
Very often allergic reaction in children is manifested on the face in the form of roughness, rash and redness. Usually, this symptomatology does not pose any danger to health, however, one should pay special attention to possible inflammatory lesions of the respiratory tract and larynx, which can disrupt the respiratory function of the baby. Typically, the cause of this allergic reaction in children are various foods (often vegetables and fruits), which in their composition contain flavorings, dyes and chemical additives, as well as direct contact with animals or pollen-producing plants.
Symptoms most often start to appear already within half an hour from the moment of contact with an allergen, or after the use of a certain foodstuff. Often, while on the face of the child allergy symptoms are present, while the overall well-being of the baby remains the same, without noticeable deterioration.
The modern pharmaceutical industry has developed many medicines, including various creams and ointments, whose action is aimed at softening the skin and ridding the child of the roughness of the skin and rash. However, the true treatment of allergies should not be limited to getting rid of the symptoms. The primary action is to get rid of the child from the cause provoking allergic manifestations, and only after that it is necessary to get rid of the consequences. To eliminate the painful and intrusive allergic symptoms on the face, the child is recommended to use a variety of moisturizing and softening creams. In addition, do not forget about the simple rules of personal hygiene, which consist in the periodic washing of the face throughout the day and significantly ease the discomfort of the child's inflamed skin
Skin allergy in children
Usually the skin allergy in a child is manifested as atopic dermatitis, childhood eczema or diathesis, which are characterized by their own symptoms and individual treatment.
Allergic diathesis - the reaction of the baby's body to certain foods, manifested by a rash, redness and itching on the buttocks and cheeks of the child. This symptomatology indicates the onset of an allergic reaction.
Children's eczema is the second stage of allergy development. At this stage, on the skin integuments, reddening and bubbles are formed, in the place of which the crusts causing discomforting itch subsequently remain.
Atopic dermatitis is the last stage of an allergic reaction, in which itching becomes unbearable, especially at night and in the evening, which often leads to disruption of the child's sleep. Typically, atopic dermatitis is located on the elbows and knee folds, and in adolescents, in addition to these places is often affected by the face and neck. Sometimes dermatitis can accompany allergic diseases of the respiratory tract. Beginning in infancy, atopic dermatitis is most often manifested before the puberty of the child, but in isolated cases can remain for life.
The reasons for the development of skin allergies in children are great, ranging from a completely incompletely digestive system, an irrational regime of the day and an unbalanced diet, to a maternal and hereditary factor that is not right during pregnancy. That is why, before the final diagnosis is made, the doctor should carefully study the living conditions of the child, learn all about his diet and get to know in particular its intrauterine development.
Treatment of this type of allergic reaction is prescribed both internal and external, the first reduces the allergic reaction, and the second facilitates annoying symptoms. In addition, it is absolutely necessary to completely eliminate the skin-inducing substances from the daily ration of the baby. In order to prevent allergies, the expectant mother during pregnancy should eat right, and after the birth of the child during the entire period of breastfeeding should keep a strict diet
Allergies to cats in children
An allergic reaction in children is quite common in different animals, but the most common is allergy to cats , which is due to the presence of specific proteins in the secretions of these animals, which the very sensitive children's immune system recognizes as aggressors, which is the reason for the onset of a protective allergic reaction.
Allergies to cats in children are mistaken for many as an allergic reaction to animal hair and if you buy a cat with a complete lack of hair (lemon, sphinx, etc.), then the negative reaction of the Danish organism will completely disappear. So this is a delusion.
This type of allergy symptoms are as follows: breathing disorder, nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing, wheezing. An itchy red bittern appears on the skin. If the cat scratches any part of the body, at this point the skin is swollen and noticeably reddens. Symptomatics can appear as a couple of minutes after talking with the animal, and after a few hours. In the case of repeated contact with the cat, the symptoms usually worsen.
To get rid of allergies to a cat, you should first of all get rid of the source of allergenic substances. However, sometimes getting rid of the animal does not lead to the child getting rid of allergies to cats, because allergens of these animals can be brought from the street on shoes, clothes and by air. In this case, the treatment of allergy is the use of a number of standard medications used to treat allergic reactions to the main allergens. These are antihistamines and decongestants and anti-allergy agents
Cold Allergy to Children
In some children, after prolonged exposure to low temperatures, the skin may turn red, itching appears and swelling arises. Most likely - it is an allergy to the cold, which arises in the case of a violation of heat exchange between the external environment and the body of the baby.
Allergy to cold in children, without attention should not remain, tk. in addition to minor symptoms, severe frost can lead to the development of such serious complications as hypertension and tachycardia. This type of allergy is most often manifested in children with diseases of the cardiovascular or endocrine systems. These babies are usually characterized by a low body temperature, even in warm weather they can freeze their legs and / or hands.
Allergy to cold is not a seasonal disease, it affects people all year round. Not only low temperature can provoke an allergic reaction, but also such factors as a strong cold wind, the use of ice cream and chilled drinks, drafts, dampness, etc.
Symptoms of cold allergy in a child: the onset of itching blisters on the skin (cold urticaria ); all the time the child is in the cold, he has a so-called pseudoallergic rhinitis; also at low temperatures there is a so-called pseudoallergic conjunctivitis , which manifests itself as a runny nose, lacrimation and a cut in the eyes, passing after the baby enters the warm room; cold dermatitis, manifested by peeling and reddening of the skin, sometimes up to swelling. Usually cutaneous manifestations of cold allergy are observed around the eyes and lips.
If a child is allergic to cold, the effect on his body of irritating factors should be minimized as much as possible. In the case of going outside, dressing the baby is necessary so that to leave as little as possible uncovered areas of the body. The remaining open areas of skin should be carefully lubricated with a small protective layer of baby cream. The child's clothing must be waterproof. Also, cold food and beverages should be excluded from use
Allergy to milk in children
Up to two years, the most common food allergy in children is allergy to milk. Among all other substances, proteins that are found in milk in large quantities are considered to be the most allergenic. Usually, an increased sensitivity to milk is detected in children who are breastfed. It is widely known that the risk of developing allergies to milk is higher the earlier the baby was weaned.
However, children often have an allergic reaction not only to cow's milk, but also to mother's milk. The most likely cause of this type of allergy is the milk that the mother used during the course of pregnancy. In addition, the reaction to breast milk can develop if a special hypoallergenic diet is not followed by the mother feeding her.
Symptoms of milk allergy in a child: bloating and abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, sometimes skin symptoms, there may be a loose stool with bloody or green impurities. However, talking about allergies immediately is not necessary, since this symptomatology is often observed in most gastrointestinal diseases, so after the appearance of the above symptoms should always consult with a doctor who confirms the diagnosis will appoint the necessary tests and studies.
Allergy to milk in children usually goes by themselves to two or three years, but sometimes it can persist for the rest of life. If a child has signs of milk allergy while breastfeeding, the primary task is to adjust the mother's diet, by completely eliminating all potentially harmful food products. If there is no improvement after this, you must first consult with your doctor and switch to artificial feeding. If it was found that the mixture is the cause of the allergy, it is necessary to switch to the use of its hypoallergenic analogue. Older children are shown, if possible, to avoid eating foods that contain cow's milk
Allergy to dust in children
Today, the allergy to dust in children is a fairly common phenomenon, but it can not be left without due attention, as various complications can develop, asthma of which is the most serious.
Symptoms of dust allergy in a child: pain in the eyes, wheezing, runny nose, sneezing, coughing, shortness of breath, sometimes asthma attacks. Often there is conjunctivitis, eczema and urticaria . It was noted that if for a few days to remove the baby from the problem apartment, his health will improve noticeably. It should be remembered that such symptoms are often observed in other diseases, so the final diagnosis must be preceded by a thorough examination.
The allergic reaction to dust in the child is caused not by the dust itself, but by the microscopic mites that live in it and the products of their vital activity. These mites are so microscopic in size that they can not be seen with the naked eye, while they are everywhere: in soft furniture, feather beds, pillows, carpets, soft toys, etc. It follows that if a baby has allergy symptoms to dust, postponing the general cleaning of all the soft objects and things in the apartment. If the child has a pillow with natural feather filling, it should immediately be replaced with an artificial pillow. Daily in the apartment should be an abundant wet cleaning, while carefully making sure that the increased humidity in the room was not.
Allergy to dust in a child is not eliminated by daily cleaning alone in a dwelling - the baby must undergo a special medication, consisting in taking antiallergic sprays and antihistamines
Allergies in newborns
In recent years, allergy is very common in newborns. One of the main reasons for the development of this reaction is considered to be high intestinal permeability, so that allergenic allergens penetrate the blood quickly enough. That is why babies are trying their best to protect from contact with any possible sources of allergies, the food items in the list of which are on the first place.
The most likely cause of allergy in newborns is a hereditary factor, especially if both biological parents suffer from any kind of allergy. In addition, the cause of allergies in infants may be non-compliance with the mother during the period of pregnancy hypoallergenic diet, this applies to the entire period of breastfeeding. Also, the cause of the development of allergies in infants may be various infectious diseases transferred by the mother during pregnancy.
Allergies in newborns are usually manifested by inflammation and redness of the skin, itchy skin peeling in any areas of the baby's body. Slight inflammation of the mucous membranes, cough and runny nose are less common. It is very important in this case not to confuse the inflammatory skin processes that have arisen under the influence of antigens with similar appearance of intertrigo and dermatitis. In the case of severe inflammatory manifestations of the mucous membranes, and in particular the larynx, the child should be immediately hospitalized, as. in this case, the risk of respiratory failure and subsequent suffocation increases significantly.
Food allergies in newborns are eliminated by the complete elimination from the diet of the most dangerous allergenic food: juices, citrus fruits and vegetables, with a final transition to artificial, or on the contrary, breastfeeding, but without supplementation. With the purpose of preventing infectious diseases and improving the work of the intestine, various zubiotics and sorbents are indicated, in the most severe cases, antihistamines are indicated.
Prevention of allergy in newborns provides for strict adherence to the mother hypoallergenic diet, both during pregnancy and during breastfeeding. From the diet in this period, it is necessary to exclude all possible dangerous components and ingredients, including dyes, food additives, preservatives, etc.