Symptoms of allergies are purely individual and extremely diverse. All manifestations observed during an allergic reaction directly depend on which systems and organs of the human body were exposed to the penetrated allergen. As many years of observations have shown, the skin, the gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory tract are most often involved in the allergic process.
Symptoms of allergy in children are divided into delayed reactions (the period of development of manifestations varies from hours to days) and reactions of immediate type (after exposure to an allergen, manifestations occur from a few seconds to several hours). However, this division is somewhat arbitrary, since it is generally believed that the development of an allergic reaction always comes immediately after the contact with the provoking allergen, and the absence at the outset of external manifestations is associated with a much more massive effect on the systems and organs of the body, and as a consequence more prolonged formation of the immune response.
Allergic reactions of the immediate type include the following allergic processes, different in severity and clinical symptomatology: hay fever (hay fever), allergic dermatitis, urticaria , bronchial asthma , allergic conjunctivitis , anaphylactic shock, allergic rhinitis, Quincke's edema, serum sickness. Perhaps the most dangerous allergic reactions of the immediate type are anaphylactic shock and Quincke's edema, which often develop after the bite of bees and other poisonous insects. For example, Quincke's edema can affect the occipital part of the spine, neck area, face and cause the patient to suffocate, which without the provision of timely emergency care usually leads to a fatal outcome. Therefore, without exception, allergic reactions of immediate type should be eliminated as soon as possible using qualified medical care.
Most often, a physician is faced with a whole complex of clinical manifestations and symptoms caused by an allergen. Among delayed allergic reactions, I want to dwell on cytotoxic reactions, which, due to the involvement in the pathological process of beginners to rapidly break down blood cells, are marked by increased danger to human life. Due to the death of blood cells, such diseases as hemolytic anemia and leukoplakia can develop, but the greatest danger is caused by thrombocytopenia, which causes multiple internal and external hemorrhages. Diagnosis of cytotoxic reactions is especially difficult, because the patient usually does not associate with unexpectedly any hemorrhages of the eye vessels with any medicinal or food allergen, as well as numerous bruises appearing on the body.
The cause of a number of different symptoms of allergy in children can be absolutely any allergen. For example, in a patient with a child's pollinosis, the birch pollen allergen can cause not only a rhinoconjunctivitis, but also hives with bronchospasm. Allergic rhinitis or pollinosis caused by allergens that are present in the ambient air. It can be dust, wool or feathers of animals, pollen. Symptoms of hay fever allergy: sore throat, sneezing, watery eyes, runny nose, itching in the nasopharynx.
Skin allergy symptoms . Most often, skin symptoms develop after eating an allergen with food. Usually this applies to seafood, milk, eggs and citrus. Also often the cause of skin symptoms may be medicines and pollen of plants. As a rule, skin allergic manifestations develop during forty-eight hours from the time of contact with a provoking allergen and are accompanied by such symptoms as: rash, itching, redness, fluid-filled blisters, swelling. In people with contact dermatitis, skin allergy symptoms begin to appear only a few days after contacting the allergen and exclusively at the point of contact. Some allergens, if they get on healthy skin in small quantities, can manifest themselves only after a week from the moment of contact. As instilled, to a new contact allergen the body develops a sensitivity of at least ten days.
Symptoms of acute allergic contact dermatitis: the appearance of itching vesicles and papules, the development of lichen-bearing blood platelets. There were recorded cases of allergic contact dermatitis with all skin areas - erythroderma, exfoliative dermatitis.
Also to skin allergy symptoms include atopic dermatitis and urticaria. Urticaria manifests as a non-permanent rash in the form of flattened or convex reddish itchy irregularly shaped formations. More often, urticaria develops due to contact with allergens, which are contained in medicines, food and air.
There is also a whole group of allergic skin diseases, under the common name - allergic dermatoses. These diseases can develop as a result of penetration into the body by injection, through the gastrointestinal mucosa, or directly in contact with the skin of cosmetic and / or medicinal products, food products, metals, latex, aeroallergens, household chemicals, etc. Often allergic skin reactions develop in response to emotional disorders and insect bites. Symptoms of allergic dermatosis: skin rashes like hives, redness and itching of the skin, changing the pattern and dry skin.
Perhaps the most dangerous form of an allergic reaction is anaphylactic shock . Symptoms of anaphylactic shock: the appearance of a rash all over the body, the occurrence of seizures and sudden shortness of breath, loss of consciousness, involuntary defecation and urination. The symptom of allergy - anaphylactic shock, develops no later than five hours after the ingress of the allergen into the body. In the case of the slightest suspicion of the development of this condition, urgent help should be called in the shortest possible time.
Symptoms of allergy from the respiratory tract are caused not only by the aeroallergens, but also by infections (Candida, Neisseria, Chlamydia , Pneumocystis, Mycoplasmosis , OrVI, ARI, etc.), which can cause infectious allergic bronchial asthma, the main manifestations of which are paroxysmal disturbances of the bronchial patency. Symptoms that indicate an exacerbation of bronchial asthma: audible at a distance wheezing, a feeling of lack of air, attacks of suffocation, varying in intensity of dyspnea, dry cough.