Allergic to the eye
Allergic to the eyes - an inflammatory lesion of the mucous membrane of the eye, developing due to contact with an allergen and manifested by lacrimation, photophobia, itching, redness and irritation of the eyelids, edema surrounding the eyeball areas. In some cases, an allergic reaction to the eyes can lead to a visual impairment. Although once in a lifetime, perhaps, every person encountered these unpleasant sensations
Allergic to the eyes - reasons
The invasion of the allergen, as a rule, the first to react to the eyes and skin, which serves as a kind of signal about the impending danger. Allergy around the eyes often develops due to an immune malfunction, often the influence of the hereditary factor is traced.
For the development of an allergic reaction, the eyes are the ideal site of the body. It all starts with a conjunctive condition that irritates her, which causes the development of further symptoms of the disease.
Allergy around the eyes often accompanies such diseases as allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis . Other reasons for the development of this disease allergic nature include:
• Stitches after surgery on the eyeball, wearing contact lenses
• Taking certain medications
• Household dust. With this variety of allergies, the eyes are often watered and itchy, the painfulness of the eyelids is observed when they move
• Volatile chemical compounds. Usually observed in people employed in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. There is an allergy around the eyes in the form of red spots or small spherical rashes
• Scales of reptiles, feathers of birds, saliva, sweat and wool of animals. With this type of allergy, a person has an obsessive cold, sneezing and redness of the eyes
• Pollen of plants. A fairly severe seasonal disease of an allergic nature, which manifests itself as a tumor and eye pains, allergic rhinitis, etc.
• Makeup. Allergy under the eyes can sometimes develop due to intolerance to certain components of cosmetics. Usually this happens in case of using cheap cosmetic products, in the process of manufacturing of which poor-quality raw materials are used. The first signs of such an allergy - local redness and puffiness of the eyelids, bags under the eyes
• Low temperatures. In the eyes of an allergy to cold is manifested by their reddening and tearing at the exit in frosty time to the street, sometimes it can be accompanied by cold conjunctivitis and allergic rhinitis
With infectious conjunctivitis, there is also sometimes an attachment of an infectious component, causing the development of a so-called infectious-allergic conjunctivitis
Allergy on the eyes - types
There are following types of allergic reactions in the eyes:
• Spring keratoconjunctivitis. Usually has a chronic form and affects boys to twelve years, which is due to an unsettled hormonal background
• Conjunctivitis caused by hay fever. This manifestation is directly related to the seasonal flowering of trees and plants. With the onset of cold weather usually passes
• Chronic allergic conjunctivitis. Symptomatology depends on the current state of the body, is more often expressed not explicitly, but constantly recurs
• Allergic conjunctivitis caused by wearing contact lenses
• Infectious allergic conjunctivitis. It develops due to bacterial infections of the oral cavity and nasopharynx, as well as inflammatory pathologies of the respiratory system
• Large papillary allergic conjunctivitis. The development of this disease causes an irritating tarsal part of the upper eyelid foreign body (contact lenses, eye prostheses, grains of sand, etc.). Most often this type of allergy occurs in people who work in an environment with small particles flying in the ambient air of various substances
• Medical allergic conjunctivitis. Allergy to eyelids can be triggered by almost any medical product
On the specificity of pathogenesis, the allergy in the eyes is divided into acute and chronic, when the acute form develops within an hour from the moment of direct contact with the provoking allergen, and the chronic is manifested in a day or more, and usually occurs alternating damping and recurrence of symptoms
Eye Allergy - Symptoms
The allergic reaction of the body to the eyes is usually manifested by the following symptoms:
• Partial or extensive redness of the conjunctiva of the eyes, in which both eyes are affected, but the development of the inflammatory process begins in one
• Usually extensive edema of the lower and / or upper eyelids, which are not amenable to the standard methods of their elimination by cold compresses and diuretics. Often edema develops so intensively that lead to the so-called syndrome of "swollen cornea"
• Sensation of sand and burning sensation in the eyes, worse when contact occurs in the area of the eyelids
• Uncontrolled movements of the upper eyelid (optosis)
• In case of neglected acute process, purulent discharge can be observed from the eyes
• Photophobia, which often leads to excessive tearing
Diagnosis of eye allergy is as follows:
To exclude or confirm the hereditary factor, anamnestic information is collected, and this also makes it possible to determine the presence of concomitant or major diseases. General tests of urine and blood are prescribed, a biochemical study of blood serum, an immunogram, bakposev, cytology. To determine the specific allergen, special skin tests are carried out. If there is any underlying disease, additional diagnostic tests (CT, gastroscopy, ultrasound, etc.) are indicated.
Allergic to the eyes - treatment
In the event that allergy under the eyes and eye allergy is observed for more than a day, one should resort to a specific treatment of these allergic manifestations. Treatment of eye allergy begins with the standard antiallergic procedure, which consists in the exclusion of contact with a provoking allergen. If contact lenses have led to the development of this reaction, they should be replaced with glasses for the time of treatment, and after recovery, try to pick up their hypoallergenic analogues. If the allergy was caused by ingress of a foreign body, it should be removed as soon as possible and then, if possible, avoid places of increased risk of contact with these factors.
It shows the appointment of local ophthalmic treatment, which uses special drops for the eyes, the allergy to which reacts extremely negatively, and the symptoms in the form of itching and redness pass very quickly. Usually, such eye drops as Cromosyl, Lecrolin, Allergodyl, Alomide are used. In the case of cross-infection, the use of drops containing antibiotics is indicated. In severe course of this type of allergy hormone-containing drops for eyes are shown. In addition to eye drops, there is a parallel reception of antihistamines. It should be noted that antiallergic eye drops are not the basis of therapy and they neutralize only the symptom, therefore, in case of impossibility of eliminating the allergen, the above-described basal therapy is not performed.
Allergy in the eyes often gives such complications to the cornea as hyperkeratosis, erosion and keratitis. Therefore at the first allergic signs it is necessary to address to the ophthalmologist, the therapist or the allergist. In allergic eye diseases, self-medication is unacceptable, because all drops without exception are very specific, therefore, only a qualified doctor should prescribe and select them.