Allergic vasculitis - pathological damage and inflammation of the blood vessels of the skin of an allergic nature, leading to ischemia of tissues and organs. Ischemic manifestations directly depend on the location and magnitude of the pathologically altered vessel. Allergic vasculitis is divided into primary (manifestations of the disease are limited to inflammation of the vessels) and secondary (the cause of the disease is any internal disease). Most often, allergic vasculitis affects people in the age range from 30 to 45 years, more often men.
The course of the disease is conventionally divided into three periods:
2. This period is characterized by the release of eosinophils in the tissue. Also, this stage is characterized by the development of Leffler's syndrome
3. The third stage of the disease is characterized by all signs of systemic vasculitis
Clinically, allergic vasculitis is divided into four main forms:
• Hemorrhagic-spotted . This form is characterized by erythematous-edematous spots with obvious hemorrhagic shades and fine-lamellar ecdysis
• Polymorphic-nodular . This form is manifested by various morphological elements of skin rash - from vesicle-bullous and urticaria nodules to hemorrhagic spots. Usually the striped elements contain serous-hemorrhagic exudate, which results from the opening of the cavity and forms serous-hemorrhagic or serous crusts, under which erosions are seen, some of which are covered with necrotic plaque. As further ulcer formation, quite extensive foci of necrosis are formed, which are accompanied by the formation of petechial and purple spots. Usually rashes are located symmetrically and are mainly observed on the skin of the trunk, buttocks and thighs
• Nodal-necrotic . This form of vasculitis manifests a red-yellow brownish hue scaly knots, in the center of some of them is the process of necrosis. As a result, the nodule covers the hemorrhagic crusts
Unclassified vasculitis . For this form is characterized by the absence of severe clinical symptoms (erythematous, swollen, scaly foci, purpurotic, petechial rashes). Because of this, it is difficult to assign it to any of the above forms
Allergic vasculitis - causes
By its nature, allergic vasculitis refers to a polyethological disease that is not strictly specific. The main mechanism for the development of this pathology is considered to be allergic reactions, in which immune complexes with positive assays for various allergens are found in the skin.
In addition, the leading pathogenetic factor leading to the development of the disease is an infectious mechanism due to increased sensitivity to staphylococci and streptococci. In this case, microbacteria of tuberculosis, pathogenic fungi and viral infection are important.
The reasons for the development of allergic vasculitis include domestic and pollen allergens, as well as some medicines (analgesics, antibiotics, etc.). In addition, the development of the disease contributes to diseases of internal organs; endocrine, neurocirculatory and neurotrophic disorders; adverse environmental effects.
Some researchers argue that the development of the disease can contribute to hypovitaminosis, trauma, cardiovascular pathology and coagulation properties of the blood
Allergic vasculitis - symptoms
There are many clinical manifestations of vasculitis, the vast majority of which directly depends on the systemic nature of the process, the nature of the histological changes, the depth of the lesion, and the caliber of the pathologically altered vessel.
The main symptoms of allergic vasculitis are: a slight increase in temperature, general malaise, a painful skin rash, blisters on the skin, burning, itching, purple skin spots, ulcers surrounded by necrotic tissues.
The elements of the rash have the form of nodular polymorphic formations with hemorrhagic contents. Most often, rashes are observed on the legs and hands, however, the skin of the trunk can be involved in the pathological process.
Diagnosis of allergic vasculitis begins with a careful collection of anamnesis and visual examination, after which the doctor prescribes the studies necessary in his opinion: angiography of the affected organs; X-ray examination; biopsy of the affected organs; laboratory diagnostics (general urine analysis, biochemical analysis of blood serum, general blood test, etc.); ECG
Allergic vasculitis - treatment
Treatment of allergic vasculitis is carried out with calcium preparations, antihistamine and desensitizing agents. To reduce vascular permeability and improve vascular tone, vascular preparations such as Exusen, Aminocaproic acid, Prodectin, Ascorutin, Dicynon, Venoruton, etc. are widely used.
In case of severe course of allergic vasculitis, the use of cytostatics and glucocorticosteroids is indicated, as well as extracorporal hemocorrection. In case of presence of infectious foci, their sanation and antibacterial systemic therapy are indicated.
External means of treatment of allergic vasculitis are usually issued in the form of ointments and creams (Solkokseryl, Iruksol, Troxevasin, etc.). With the concomitant articular syndrome, local application of anti-inflammatory ointments, magnetotherapy, ultraphonophoresis and bandages with Dimexide is indicated.