At least a quarter of the population of our planet in recent years, there is periodically observed a cold of the allergic nature, not associated with colds, which is accompanied by difficulty breathing, vexing itching in the nose, sneezing, lacrimation, coughing and watery discharge from the nose.
Allergic rhinitis is caused by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity caused by the developed allergic reaction of the body. It follows that this condition is primarily an immune disease, since a person with a strong, adequately functioning immune defense, initially no allergic manifestations is not susceptible. Therefore, in the case of both an allergic rhinitis and other allergic manifestations, it is safe to speak of the presence of immune disorders in the human body.
The cause of an allergic rhinitis can be capaciously caused by one single word - allergen. An allergen can act absolutely any, at times even completely innocuous substance, which due to a certain immune malfunction will be identified by immune defense as harmful and menacing.
An allergic rhinitis usually develops in people prone to this condition, which is confirmed by a preliminary diagnostic survey, during which the allergist in most cases finds out that someone from close relatives have allergic diseases (allergic dermatitis, seasonal allergies , bronchial asthma, ), which eloquently speaks of a hereditary predisposition to an allergic rhinitis.
Allergic rhinitis in children often leads to a decrease in cognitive (cognitive) functions. The cause of any allergic disease, including allergic rhinitis including, is the histamine produced by the body in response to direct contact with the allergen, which is a mediator of allergy and as a consequence causes swelling of the nasal mucosa.
Allergic rhinitis is divided into the following conditional varieties:
• Professional - is associated with certain substances that affect a person predisposed to an allergy during his professional activities
• Year-round - is conditioned by irritants, contact with which is possible throughout the year
• Seasonal - is associated with allergens that usually appear in the ambient air in a certain season of the year, usually pollen of wind-pollinated plants
In addition, the allergic rhinitis is divided into conditional degrees of severity:
• Light degree of severity - there is no disturbance of night sleep, a runny nose absolutely does not affect daily activity and efficiency
• Medium and severe - there is a severe symptom, almost completely frustrating night sleep, disrupting the daily life and minimizing the ability to work
Allergic rhinitis - symptoms
How to distinguish an allergic rhinitis from a common cold? For the common cold of allergic origin, the following symptoms are characteristic:
• Due to the swelling of the nasal mucosa, nasal breathing
• Observation of sudden sneezing caused by tickling and itching in the nose
• A copious, watery discharge, constantly resembling ordinary water
The first symptoms of an allergic rhinitis usually appear after a few minutes after contact with the allergen, but sometimes this period may extend to several hours and stay for about ten days. Symptoms of an allergic rhinitis are usually divided into early and late ones.
Early symptoms are as follows:
• Transparent watery discharge from the nose, which in a few days often becomes more viscous and in the case of secondary infection become yellowish
• Strong prolonged sneezing, the peak of which most often occurs in the morning hours
• There may be a sore throat and a coughing cough
• Lachrymation, allergic conjunctivitis , sensation of sand in the eyes, itching in the nose
Late symptoms are as follows:
• Sniffling and severe nasal congestion (this symptom is more common in children)
• Irritability, fatigue and bad mood
• Poor sleep and increased photosensitivity of the eyes
• Disturbance of smell, breathing through the mouth
• An uncontrollable prolonged cough
• Discomfort and pain on the face
In addition to all of the above, it is often observed such symptoms: soreness and redness around the wings of the nose and upper lip; nose bleed; pain in the ears and throat; hearing impairment; loss of appetite and headache .
The diagnosis of an allergic rhinitis is usually preliminarily established based on the detection of the above described symptoms, since these symptoms are very likely to confirm the allergic nature of the common cold. However, only the results of the relevant studies can fully confirm the correctness of the established diagnosis.
More → Allergy Analysis
Allergic rhinitis - treatment
Treatment of an allergic rhinitis always begins with the elimination of the causative allergen. First of all, this is achieved by the fact that a so-called "dust-free regime" is maintained in the room where the patient is constantly staying, which is achieved by constant wet cleanings. In addition, to establish a barrier with an allergen, special nasal aerosols are sprayed onto the nasal mucosa.
When choosing antihistamines (antiallergic) drugs, the symptomatology and the current lifestyle of the patient plays a crucial role.
If the allergic rhinitis has a light course and at the same time does not violate the usual everyday lifestyle, the following syrups and tablets are recommended for use: Semprex (Acryvastin), Kestin, Erius (Desloratadine), Clerazil (Loratadin), etc. Additionally in the nose (intranasally ) appoint the following antihistamines: Histimet (Levokabastin) and Allergodil (Azelastin).
In cases of moderate and severe degrees of leaking allergic rhinitis, which is accompanied by severe sleep disorders, such medications with sedative (hypnotics) action as Hydroxysin, Fenistil (Dimethinden), Clemastin and others are indicated for the purpose. These drugs are not used for a long time.
The drug Telfast (Fexofenadine) and spray Fliksonase (Fliksotid, Fluticasone) is prescribed in both cases.
Treatment of an allergic rhinitis should always be accompanied by observance of a diet specially developed for each particular patient. Usually, this diet is based on eating a large amount of sour-milk products (low-fat sour cream, kefir, yogurt, cottage cheese), which contain a lot of calcium in its composition, which contributes to the production of gamma-interferon, which increases the body's resistance to an allergic reaction. In addition, for the period of treatment should minimize any contact with household chemicals, decorative cosmetics and perfumes.
In conclusion, I would like to note that the allergic rhinitis is quite a dangerous disease, as it is often a kind of provocateur of the development of other very serious diseases, bronchial asthma is on the first place (in almost 90% of patients with bronchial asthma it began with a seemingly innocuous allergic rhinitis ). Therefore, the widely held view that "ordinary snot" does not deserve a serious attitude toward them, in the case of a common cold of allergic nature does not work.