Allergic bronchitis is a polyetiological disease, in other words, it can develop as a result of exposure to household allergens (pollen of plants, house dust, animal hair, etc.), and under the influence of bacterial or viral stimuli, more often it is a pathogenic staphilococcus. Usually relapses of allergic bronchitis are observed in the cold season, which serves as another confirmation of the infectious causative factor.
Unlike bronchial asthma, in which small bronchi and bronchioles are affected, allergic bronchitis affects middle and large bronchi. This explains the absence of a clearly expressed bronchospastic component and asthmatic attacks in this disease.
Allergic bronchitis is characterized by edematous pallid mucosa, narrowing of the lumen of segmental bronchi and a large number of bronchial mucosal secretions in the lumen. In the event that the pathological process develops as a result of bacterial infection, bronchoscopy shows changes that are usually present in viral-bacterial bronchitis (mucopurulent secretion, mucosal hyperemia).
Allergic bronchitis in young children, due to the age-related features of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, is manifested by predominant edema and hypersecretion, with very mild bronchoconstriction. This fact is one of the main reasons that make it difficult for young children to differentiate the diagnosis of this disease with bronchial asthma .
Allergic bronchitis - symptoms
This disease has a recurrent character and occurs in children of absolutely any age. Relapses are predominantly manifested and occur at subfebrile or normal temperature and can be observed 1-2 times during the month. The duration of relapses can range from a few days to two or more weeks.
The main symptom of allergic bronchitis - often paroxysmal, persistent cough, manifested mainly at night. In the beginning, usually a cough is dry, later turning into a moist one. Coughing attacks can be triggered by physical stress, negative emotions, etc.
Despite the fact that the disease has a persistent recurrent course, there are no changes in the digestive system, cardiovascular system, kidneys and liver. Usually, children develop symptoms that indicate the involvement of vegetative and central nervous systems in the pathological process - children become listless, irritable, capricious, and they have increased sweating.
Allergic bronchitis - treatment
Treatment of allergic bronchitis is long, systematic and complex. Based on the individual characteristics of the course of the disease, the main therapeutic principles are reduced to an adequate combination of nonspecific and specific measures of influence. A rather effective therapeutic effect was shown by long-term immunotherapy, which was detected by allergen tests for allergies . In addition, stimulant drugs such as Pentoxyl, Metacil, Sodium Nucleinate, etc. are prescribed. Antihistamines (Tavegil, Diazolin, Pipolphen, Suprastin, Dimedrol, etc.) have good antiallergic effect. They are used in aerosols, intramuscularly or orally. A good therapeutic effect is provided by aerosols with alkaline and chloride-sodium mineral waters, which reduce the viscosity of mucus, restore ion balance and improve the trophism of the mucous membranes.
Of the physiotherapeutic procedures, allergic bronchitis is most often used ultraviolet rays, which increase the production of antibodies, stimulate the processes of nonspecific immunity and contribute to the enhancement of protective functions. Important factors are physical factors (water, sun, fresh air), combined with hardening measures.
With children of school and preschool age, systematic gymnastics classes should be conducted, and for children up to three years of age it is obligatory to do a restorative massage. If the symptoms of the disease are not detected in children of school and preschool age for three to four months, they will be recommended swimming in therapeutic swimming.