Alimentary dystrophy: symptoms, treatment
Alimentary dystrophy (epidemic edema, protein-free edema, famine disease, military edema, famine edema, edematous disease) is a disease of prolonged malnutrition inadequate nutrition, which is manifested by dystrophic changes in organs and tissues in violation of their functions, progressive disorders of all metabolic processes, physical activity, cachexia, edema and general exhaustion
The causes of alimentary dystrophy
The main cause of this disease is the multi-week qualitative and energy inadequacy of food, which becomes a threatening mass character during periods of natural disasters and military conflicts. Due to endogenous or exogenous causes, an inadequate amount of nutrients is supplied to the body and, accordingly, it is absorbed. Particularly negatively affects the state of the body deficiency of proteins, fat and fatty acids, vitamins and essential amino acids.
Due to the prolonged lack of adequate nutrition, because of the dystrophic changes, the functions of most organs are disrupted, hypoproteinemia and polyglandular insufficiency
There are three stages of alimentary dystrophy.
The first stage
It is characterized by a decrease in diet, increased appetite and thirst, pollakiuria, an increased desire to consume table salt. However, the general condition of patients at this stage is not significantly affected.
The second stage
There is a pronounced weight loss, muscle weakness and mild hypothermia of the body, the general condition worsens, hypoproteinemic edema on the legs develops, and disability is lost. There is an increased appetite, thirst, polycycline, changes in the psyche and initial dystrophic changes in various organs.
The third stage
, анемия, зачастую появляются пролежни. For this stage, complete disappearance of subcutaneous tissue, cachexia, muscle atrophy, pronounced changes in the psyche, weakness, apathy, polyhypovitaminosis, paresthesia, signs of kidney and heart failure, constipation , anemia, and often bedsores appear. Evidently pronounced hypothermia develops (in some cases, body temperature can drop to 30 ° C), acidosis, hypotension. In some cases, the so-called hungry coma develops, possibly the sudden onset of death.
In the absence of emergency measures of treatment, the course of the disease has a progressive character until the stage of development of the hunger coma. , кишечные инфекции, пневмония и пр.); The death of patients in the third stage of alimentary dystrophy occurs in the form of a so-called accelerated death (the patient dies within 24 hours), which may be caused by the attachment of an infectious disease ( tuberculosis , intestinal infections, pneumonia, etc.); or in the form of a gradual slow dying. One of the causes of sudden death may be even a slight physical strain
Treatment of alimentary dystrophy
Initially, complete mental and physical rest, enriched with proteins and vitamins, full nutrition with a phased expansion of the diet is necessary. In parallel with this, intravenous administration of vitamins, protein hydrolysates and plasma is necessary.
Symptomatic therapy of concomitant diseases of internal organs is carried out, with pronounced edemas are prescribed diuretics, anabolic steroid hormones. Sparing sessions of physiotherapy are prescribed.
When hungry coma patient immediately need to warm up the warmers (then give a warm drink). Every two hours 50 ml of 40% glucose solution is intravenously administered intravenously, parenteral nutrition preparations (polyamine 400 ml or hydrolysin 1 l, etc.) are drip-fed. With convulsions, 10 ml of 10% calcium chloride solution is intravenously administered. After removing the patient from the coma necessarily - sweet hot tea and fractions are frequent meals in small portions.